Hi all, Nature just released a Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, that focuses on gut microbiota and future developments. There are quite a few articles, which can be viewed for free. You can find it here: http://www.nature.com/nrgastro/focus/gutmicrobiota/index.html?WT.mc_id=FBK_NPG I wanna pinpoint to the most interesting parts: http://www.nature.com/nrgastro/journal/v9/n10/pdf/nrgastro.2012.172.pdf ...First, they found that mice with colitis had lower diversity in their gut microbiota than wild-type mice, with a shift in microbial composition towards increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli (a 100-fold increase when intestinal inflammation was present). Crucially, the authors next confirmed that E. coli specifically had a role in CRC development.. http://www.nature.com/nrgastro/journal/v9/n10/pdf/nrgastro.2012.157.pdf "New findings demonstrate novel interactions between diet, bacteria, genetic susceptibility and immune responses in IBD. Milk fat increases production of taurocholine-conjugated bile acids, which promotes growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria that cause immune-mediated colitis in susceptible mice. These observations will guide human studies that might improve dietary advice for patients with IBD" http://www.nature.com/nrgastro/journal/v9/n10/pdf/nrgastro.2012.156.pdf The microbial communities that colonize different regions of the human gut influence many aspects of health. In the healthy state, they contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of nondigestible dietary components in the large intestine, and a balance is maintained with the host’s metabolism and immune system. Negative consequences, however, can include acting as sources of inflammation and infection, involvement in gastrointestinal diseases, and possible contributions to diabetes mellitus and obesity. http://www.nature.com/nrgastro/journal/v9/n10/pdf/nrgastro.2012.152.pdf Studies that used these technologies indicate that dysbiosis (that is, abnormal microbiota composition) and decreased complexity of the gut microbial ecosystem are common features in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Whether such changes are a cause or a consequence of the disease remains to be elucidated.