Dr. Hokama is back! Dr. Hokama was the one who discovered the ciguatoxin epitope in ME/CFS and other chronic diseases. This epitope seemed to signal ion channel dysfunction in ME/CFS. That was a couple of years ago. Now he's got a new study out focusing on cardiolipin that suggests mitochondrial problems are present. What is cardiolipin? Examination of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) in the sera of patients clinically diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay procedure demonstrated the presence of immunoglobulin M isotypes in 95% of CFS serum samples tested. The presence of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A isotypes were also detected in a subset of the samples. I think this suggests the immune system is attacking part of our mitochondria - thus adding more evidence to idea that mitochondrial impairment plays a role in this disease. 1: J Clin Lab Anal. 2009 Jul 21;23(4):210-212. [Epub ahead of print]. Anticardiolipin antibodies in the sera of patients with diagnosed chronic fatigue syndrome. Hokama Y, Campora CE, Hara C, Kuribayashi T, Le Huynh D, Yabusaki K. Department of Pathology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii.