New era for ME/CFS research as top cytokine study attracts media headlines
The immune systems of patients who have recently developed ME/CFS look markedly different from those who have been ill for much longer, according to a major new study from Drs. Ian Lipkin and Mady Hornig at Columbia University. This shift in immune function hadn’t been seen before.
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M.E. caused by enterovirus?

Discussion in 'General ME/CFS Discussion' started by knackers323, Jan 24, 2014.

  1. end

    end *****

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    @Raindrop

    Blood testing relays specificity but less sensitive, done only via ARUP

    Biopsy via endoscopy x4 relays high sensitivity but lacks specificity, VP1 only done via EV Med
     
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  2. halcyon

    halcyon Senior Member

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    The fidelity of the 5D8/1 antibody against VP1 was confirmed in this paper from February. From the paper:

    RESULTS:
    Clone 5D8/1 labelled CKB, but not ATP5B, on western blots performed under denaturing conditions. In cultured human cell lines, isolated human islets and pancreas sections from patients with type 1 diabetes, the immunolabelling of ATP5B, CKB and VP1 by 5D8/1 was readily distinguishable. Moreover, in a human tissue microarray displaying more than 80 different cells and tissues, only two (stomach and colon; both of which are potential sites of enterovirus infection) were immunopositive when stained with clone 5D8/1.

    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:
    When used under carefully optimised conditions, the immunolabelling pattern detected in sections of human pancreas with clone 5D8/1 did not reflect cross-reactivity with either ATP5B or CKB. Rather, 5D8/1 is likely to be representative of enteroviral antigen expression.
     
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  3. jepps

    jepps Senior Member

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    This study writes about the mechanism, how coxsackie persists in brain and central nervous system:



     
  4. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    @jepps
    To complement that study of coxsackievirus B infected astrocytes in human cell lines, there is also an in vivo study showing that coxsackievirus B infects astrocyte cells in mice brains:
    It is particularly interesting that the cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 were released by this coxsackievirus B infection of mouse astrocytes, because Rönnbäck and Hansson have hypothesized that these exact three cytokines may underpin mental fatigue (they are the three main sickness behavior cytokines):
    As well as astrocytes, this study shows coxsackievirus B also seems to be able to chronically infect the neural progenitor cells (stems cells) of the brain.

    In terms of how this coxsackievirus B infection manages to persist in the brain and central nervous system, this paper says that that coxsackievirus B may persist in the CNS as a low-level, noncytolytic infection.
     
  5. jepps

    jepps Senior Member

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    This has nothing to do with enteroviruses in the brain, but I found it also interesting, as it shows, how coxsackie can result in autoimmunity and inflammatory disease:

    http://coolinginflammation.blogspot.co.at/search/label/enterovirus
     
    Last edited: Feb 9, 2015
  6. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    @jepps
    I also came across that same blog article theorizing how enteroviruses might trigger autoimmunity, and started a thread on it here.
     
  7. jepps

    jepps Senior Member

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    Thank you for posting this, sorry, that I did not find this. Time will see, if treating viruses and underlying causes improves our chronic disease:). But it is helpful to understand potential relationships. PR is such a good place for this.
     
    Last edited: Feb 9, 2015
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  8. Hip

    Hip Senior Member

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    @jepps
    One thing to note is that the chronic inflammatory condition of coxsackievirus B (CVB) myocarditis (heart muscle inflammation) has been classed as autoimmune, but @Jonathan Edwards has pointed out that the inflammation in CVB myocarditis is not true autoimmunity.

    I am guessing that chronic CVB myocarditis was perhaps thought of as an autoimmune reaction because, after the initial acute coxsackievirus B infection of the heart, no infectious viral particles can be found in the heart muscle in adult myocarditis (ref: here). Thus there was no explanation as to why the immune system keeps attacking the heart muscle in this chronic inflammatory way.

    However, we now know that there appears to be a residue of non-cytolytic enteroviruses left inside the heart muscle cells after the acute CVB infection is over, and it may well be that these non-cytolytic viruses are the cause of the continued heart muscle inflammation: the immune system sees that there is still a virus inside the heart muscle cells, and so keeps attacking them.

    Likewise, non-cytolytic enteroviruses living inside the astrocyte cells and neural progenitor cells of the brain may be responsible for the continued brain inflammation found in ME/CFS patients — brain inflammation that may underlie many ME/CFS symptoms.
     
    Last edited: Feb 9, 2015
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