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lymphocytes

Discussion in 'XMRV Testing, Treatment and Transmission' started by FernRhizome, Mar 1, 2010.

  1. FernRhizome

    FernRhizome Senior Member

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    Cool!!!! Thanks!

    By the way JT: what's the name of the test that further breaks down lymphocytes into b and t and killer cells? ~Fern
  2. Dr. Yes

    Dr. Yes Shame on You

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    Hi Fern

    That is usually called a lymphocyte enumeration panel (or total lymphocye enumeration, or lymphocyte subsets panel...). Often it just shows up on the results as "Flow Cytometry", since it's always a flowcytometric analysis.
  3. FernRhizome

    FernRhizome Senior Member

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    Cool! Thank you Dr. Yes. I will ask for that. Is it typically out of kilter in CFS? Are you really a doctor that you know so much of the science? ~Fern
  4. glenp

    glenp "and this too shall pass"

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    Thank you JT and Dr Yes

    I usually have low or low normal lymohocytes and wbc isnt that high. Recently when I was sicker I went in and had blood tests- all normal and I saw that my wbc looked better -- now I understand it better with you having similar JT I was wondering why they looked even better when I was sicker - i guess they will go bac to a more normal low when I feel not as bad

    glen
  5. JT1024

    JT1024 Senior Member

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    CELLULAR IMMUNITY Specific cellular immunity is mediated by T cells, and defects affecting these lymphocytes underlie the most severe immune deficiencies. Because antibody production requires intact T cell function, most T cell defects lead to combined (cellular and humoral) immune deficiency. Any child presenting with recurrent or severe viral and/or bacterial illnesses or opportunistic infections in the first year of life requires evaluation of T cell number and function. Similar considerations apply to adults with these types of infections. In the pediatric age group, most cases are due to congenital immune deficiency. In older children and adults, the major causes are HIV infection and iatrogenic immune suppression due to therapy for autoimmune disease, malignancy, or transplantation. Occasionally, mild forms of primary combined immune deficiency escape diagnosis until adulthood.

    Complete blood count with differential and blood smear The complete blood count (CBC) with differential and blood smear must be performed in all cases. Normal ranges for cell populations in adults are well established, and the normal ranges for lymphocytes in children are also available [3,4]. In many diseases, cell populations are initially normal, and then decline over time. Thus, normal results in the past cannot be relied upon as a reflection of the current state.

    The CBC establishes the presence or absence of lymphopenia, and any associated gross hematologic abnormalities, some of which may greatly assist in diagnosis. Sequential CBCs can also be used to monitor the courses of various disorders. However, a single finding of lymphopenia should be interpreted with caution, since transient lymphopenia is frequently found in a variety of common infectious illnesses [5].

    On the other hand, significant lymphopenia should not be ignored, since lymphopenia may be the first indication of SCID (Severe Combined Immune Deficiency [6]. It is also critical to note that normal lymphocyte counts in infants are much higher than in older children and adults.

    In an infant with any significant infection and a total lymphocyte count <3,000 cells/cubic mm, flow cytometry (see below) should be performed. In the absence of other indicators of immune dysfunction, there should at the very least be subsequent measurement of the lymphocyte count to document normalization. Persistent lymphopenia requires further investigation of immune function.
    Other abnormalities of the complete blood count and differential are discussed separately.

    Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry Flow cytometry is appropriate in the initial evaluation of all patients with opportunistic infections or severe or persistent lymphopenia [7]. Standard flow cytometry analysis will be abnormal in all cases of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), and in many instances of other combined immunodeficiencies.

    Opportunistic infections may not be evident among patients with milder variants of immune deficiency syndromes, early in the course of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), and in many instances of other combined immunodeficiencies. Such children frequently present with recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary disease or severe cases of common childhood infections; similar considerations apply to adults. Most of these patients are initially screened with a CBC, measurement of serum immunoglobulins and specific antibody responses, and possibly cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity testing (see below). When these tests are not diagnostic of a particular syndrome or when marked abnormalities are present, analysis of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry should be undertaken.

    Method For analysis by flow cytometry, blood cells are mixed with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies that bind to cell surface markers that distinguish various functional categories of lymphocytes. The flow cytometer detects fluorescence and counts the number of cells that bind the monoclonal antibody on their surface. Results are expressed as a percentage of cells analyzed.
    It is imperative that either a CBC and differential be performed on a blood specimen obtained at the time of the flow cytometric analysis, or the cytometer itself be used to determine the lymphocyte number. This analysis permits the calculation of the absolute numbers of each lymphocyte subset. It is possible for the percentage of a particular subset to be abnormal while the total number of cells is within the normal range, and vice-versa. An absolute deficiency, rather than a relative (percentage) deficiency, is of much greater clinical significance.

    The fundamental set of markers commonly used and the lymphocyte populations they define are below. The nature and derivation of the nomenclature of the markers is beyond the scope of this review, and may be found in any basic immunology text.


    Markers commonly used for assessment of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry

    Marker name (Cell type) Comment

    CD3 (T cells) Expressed on all T cells and no other cell type

    CD4 (T cell subset) Predominantly helper/inducer T cells

    CD8 (T cell subset) Predominantly cytotoxic T cells; expressed by up to one-third of natural killer cells

    CD19 or CD20 (B cells)

    CD16 (Natural killer cells) Some NK cells may not express CD16

    CD56 (Natural killer cells) Expressed on the majority of NK cells

    CD57 (Natural killer cells) Expressed on the majority of NK cells; combinations of CD16, CD56 and CD57 will more reliably evaluate NK cell number than any marker alone

    CD45 (All leukocytes) Positive control

    CD14 (Monocytes) Negative control

    Thought this might be useful information.... it is from a medical reference available to most physicians. It was last updated in June 2009 with a literature review in September 2009.

    Hopefully, I'll be abel to provide further detail! ~ JT
  6. JT1024

    JT1024 Senior Member

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    Here is the VIPDx Test Menu Card (dated March 2010): View attachment VIPDx_test_menu_c&#.pdf

    VIPDx offers the Lymphocyte Enumeration Assay (CD3, CD4-CD8 ratio, CD19 Absolute) and the Natural Killer Cell Enumeration & Functional Assay (LU 30) Panel
  7. FernRhizome

    FernRhizome Senior Member

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    Thanks JT. I am going to ask my doctor for these, but I assume they can be sent anywhere, not just VIPDx? ~Fern
  8. JT1024

    JT1024 Senior Member

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    Mayo Clinic also offers something similar. That is where we send our send out tests (those not performed in the hospital's clinical laboratory).

    Unit Code 89825:
    T- and B-Cell Quantitation and Lymphocyte Proliferation to Antigens and Mitogens Panel


    http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/89825

    Useful For Assessing antigen-specific T-cell responses, global T-cell function, and quantitating lymphocyte subsets in a single orderable test.

    This panel is most helpful when evaluating patients with immunodeficiencies, where quantitative decreases in T cells can lead to reduced functional antigen and/or mitogen responses.

    Includes: T- and B-Cell QN by Flow Cytometry, Lymphocyte Proliferation, Antigens, and Lymphocyte Proliferation, Mitogens

    Normal immunity requires a balance between the activities of various lymphocyte subpopulations with different effector and regulatory functions. Different immune cells can be characterized by unique surface membrane antigens described by a cluster of differentiation nomenclature (eg, CD3 is an antigen found on the surface of T lymphocytes). Abnormalities in the number and percent of T (CD3), T-helper (CD4), T-suppressor (CD8), B (CD19), and natural killer (CD16 CD56) lymphocytes have been described in a number of different diseases. In patients who are infected with HIV, the CD4 count is measured for AIDS diagnosis and for initiation of antiviral therapy. The progressive loss of CD4 T lymphocytes in patients infected with HIV is associated with increased infections and complications.

    The Public Health Service has recommended that all HIV-positive patients be tested every 3 to 6 months for the level of CD4 T lymphocytes. The absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets are known to be influenced by a variety of biological factors, including hormones, the environment, and temperature. The studies on diurnal (circadian) variation in lymphocyte counts have demonstrated progressive increase in CD4 T-cell count throughout the day, while CD8 T cells and CD19 B cells increase between 8:30 am and noon, with no change between noon and afternoon. Natural killer (NK) cell counts, on the other hand, are constant throughout the day.

    Circadian variations in circulating T-cell counts have been shown to be negatively correlated with plasma cortisol concentration.(2-4) In fact, cortisol and catecholamine concentrations control distribution and, therefore, numbers of naive versus effector CD4 and CD8 T cells. It is generally accepted that lower CD4 T-cell counts are seen in the morning compared with the evening , and during summer compared to winter.

    These data, therefore, indicate that timing and consistency in timing of blood collection is critical when serially monitoring patients for lymphocyte subsets.
  9. upnorth

    upnorth

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    Not sure if this fits here, but when I'm crashed or relapsed, my WBC drops to mild leukopenia and neutropenia.....I'm wondering if I'm the only M.E. cfser with this issue.?

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