Literally "is chronic fatigue syndrome a new illness?" In English: Abstract More than 30 years after its individualization, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains a debilitating condition for the patient and a confusing one to the physicians, both because of diagnostic difficulties and poorly codified management. Despite the numerous work carried out, its pathophysiology remains unclear, but a multifactorial origin is suggested with triggering (infections) and maintenance (psychological) factors as well as the persistence of inflammatory (low grade inflammation, microglial activation…), immunologic (decrease of NK cells, abnormal cytokine production, reactivity to a variety of allergens, role of estrogens…) and muscular (mitochondrial dysfunction and failure of bioenergetic performance) abnormalities at the origin of multiple dysfunctions (endocrine, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, digestive…). The complexity of the problem and the sometimes contradictory results of available studies performed so far are at the origin of different pathophysiological and diagnostic concepts. Based on a rigorous analysis of scientific data, the new American concept of Systemic Disease Exertion Intolerance proposed in 2015 simplifies the diagnostic approach and breaks with the past and terminologies (CFS and myalgic encephalomyelitis). It is still too early to distinguish a new disease, but this initiative is a strong signal to intensify the recognition and management of patients with CFS and stimulate research. Keywords Chronic fatigue syndrome; Myalgic encephalomyelitis; Systemic exertion intolerance disease; Infections; Inflammation; Immunologic disorders; Autoimmune diseases; Fibromyalgia ....sigh.