Very interesting article about the history of L-forms & how it causes chronic diseases. Some snippets below but much larger article at http://bacteriality.com/2007/08/18/history/ In 1941, German scientist Emmy Klieneberger-Nobel began to study the L form at the Lister Institute in England. A meticulous lab worker, Klieneberger-Nobel, perfected the method of growing the pathogens on serum (blood) agar. After growing colonies of the bacterium Streptobacillus monliforme she confirmed that several of the pathogens in her Petri dish did indeed lack cell walls. She named the wall-less variants L-forms after the Lister Institute where she worked. In the years that followed she studied other species of L-forms and published several papers describing their characteristics and behavior. She once said that "the L-form is an entity of its own as different from bacteria as the tadpole from the frog." Mattman studied patients with Tuberculosis and found that in every patient tested, the blood was saturated with a variety of L-forms. She identified two different species of L-form bacteria in patients with Parkinson's Disease. The L- form species of Borrellia burgdoferi was detected in patients with Lyme disease. She cultured serum from forty patients with multiple sclerosis and found a different species of the borrelia L-form present in her samples. Soon after, she detected Chlamydia pneumonia in the blood of patients who had suffered a pulmonary thrombosis. She also found bacteria that resembled M. tuberculosis in the blood of patients with the lung disease sarcoidosis. In the end, Mattman detected dozens of species of L-form bacteria and was able to culture these wall-less forms of bacteria from the blood samples of patients with over 20 incurable illnesses. She published numerous papers throughout her career and in authored an entire medical textbook in which she details her findings. A team of researchers and doctors in the United Kingdom are currently studying the L-form in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The microbiology team, lead by CFS clinician Dr. Andy Wright has detected L-forms in every single one of the CFS patients they have tested (about 600 to date). Wright has developed a method of taking pinprick blood (usually from the ear) and allowing it to degrade for 6-36 hours. The process causes the L-form bacteria to break out of the cells and they can subsequently be observed with a dark field microscope. The bacteria can be stained with fluorescent dye. If the L-forms are alive they will stain green, while dying/dead L-forms stain orange. Wright has created several videos of L-forms under the microscope in which the pathogens can be seen quite clearly. In the videos, the bacteria often lengthen into long filamental forms that look thin and snakelike. They can be seen weaving in between infected cells. Sometimes "giant" L-forms, which are more rectangular in shape, begin to grow inside the cells. Danish researcher Marie Kroun has also taken several videos of L-form bacteria under a high-resolution microscope. (Wright & Kroun were both Lyme sufferers...) Lida Mattman is one of the few scientists who figured out how to cultivate spiros in test tubes & published the book Stealth Pathogens - sadly she has now passed away..