I'm not sure whether you're aware of the news that has been discussed today regarding Hornig and Lipkins search for pathogens and potential biomarkers: simply put they found little evidence of active infections in 281 patients with ME agaisnt 201 controls (and they did quite a large number of commonly discussed ones in ME/CFS) - believe in 85% they found retroviral sequences but it was made very clear that they do not know whether these are important to ongoing disease and made a comment that they believe this will not be significant, however they found a few interesting leads signalling immune activation. These include: in Plasma in patients with less than 3 years of disease, increased Eosinophil in blood - allergy aspect? General group: differences in cytokines/chemokines: decreases in IL17, 2, 8 and TNF increases in leptin and serpin less than 3 years specifically: frequent elevation in cytokine IL17 compared to those after 3 years where it appears to then become deficient Spinal fluid: very different pattern: patients elevated IL10, IL 13 (TH2) and 4 generally regarded at TH1 only difference between classic cfs patients those who go on to develop other diseases later (such as lymphoma) was FGH beta increased in those who developed lymphoma. Fundamentally, after approximately 3 years the profile seems to change quite substantially with regard to this ongoing immune response at least in terms of biomarkers, obviously this work is ongoing but it would be a very interesting part of the disease - is this change something that occurs in any other known autoimmune conditions? To me these changes seem somewhat non-specific and point towards the general immune dysregulation as would be expected in an autoimmune condition but I wanted to put these to you in case anything jumps out at you. They concluded that they believe the problems could lie in the gut microbiome and are collecting and looking at fecal samples - from a personal view I don't believe the answer lies here but you never know. My question here is as to whether these biomarkers are things you would expect to see in an autoimmune disease which ME is being hypothesised to be. For me this virus hunting seems to be leading nowhere again but I know many people believe very strongly in it but I think the biomarkers of active immune response is interesting and could support autoimmunity. Sorry if this doesn't make much sense - I openly admit to not being best informed on this virus stuff and i was making notes while listening to it, but I would be interested to hear your input on the topic!