http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21847343 (free article) Abstract The gut microbiota is a remarkable asset for human health. As a key element in the development and prevention of specific diseases, its study has yielded a new field of promising biotherapeutics. This review provides comprehensive and updated knowledge of the human gut microbiota, its implications in health and disease, and the potentials and limitations of its modification by currently available biotherapeutics to treat, prevent and/or restore human health, and future directions. Homeostasis of the gut microbiota maintains various functions which are vital to the maintenance of human health. Disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium (gut dysbiosis) is associated with a plethora of human diseases, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, colorectal cancer, metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Relevant underlying mechanisms by which specific intestinal bacteria populations might trigger the development of disease in susceptible hosts are being explored across the globe. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota using biotherapeutics, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics, may favor health-promoting populations of bacteria and can be exploited in development of biotherapeutics. Other technologies, such as development of human gut models, bacterial screening, and delivery formulations eg, microencapsulated probiotics, may contribute significantly in the near future. Therefore, the human gut microbiota is a legitimate therapeutic target to treat and/or prevent various diseases. Development of a clear understanding of the technologies needed to exploit the gut microbiota is urgently required. Aldo it's not about ME specificly, the overall article is interesting. However, there is a particular part that catches my attention. Through fermentation, bacterial growth is stimulated, producing shortchain fatty acids and gases. The major short-chain fatty acids produced are acetate, butyrate, and propionate. One property of short-chain fatty acids is their trophic effect on the intestinal epithelium. Short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, may also exert potent immunomodulatory effects by suppressing nuclear factor-kB activation and/or by acting on G-coupled receptors, as demonstrated with acetate.These concepts illustrate a dynamic relationship between the immune system and the microbiota. According to dr.Maes, nf kappa b (too much of it) is very important in the pathogenesis of CFS/ME. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17693979 Maybe we don't have enough bacteria producing shortchain fatty acids?? edit; just saw it wrote microbia instead of microbiota in the threadtitle, can't change it anymore, apologies.