Tate Mitchell <tatemitchell@GMAIL.COM> sent the following to co-cure on 23 June 2011: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/av/aip/341294.pdf Phylogeny-directed search for murine leukemia virus - like retroviruses in vertebrate genomes, and in patients suffering from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer. Jonas Blomberg1*, Ali Sheikholvaezin1, Amal Elfaitouri1, Fredrik Blomberg1, Anna Sjsten1, Johan Mattsson Ulfstedt1, Rdiger Pipkorn2, Clas Kllander3, Christina hrmalm1, Gran Sperber4 1Section of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University 2Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany 3Cavidi tech AB, Uppsala Science Park, 751 83 Uppsala, Sweden. 4Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Box 593, Biomedical Centre, 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden *Corresponding author. Address: Jonas Blomberg MD PhD, Professor Emeritus, Clinical Microbiology, Academic Hospital, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Email: email@example.com. fax: +46 18 551012 Abstract Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-like retroviruses (MLLV) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (Xenotropic Murine retrovirus Related Virus; XMRV, and Human Mouse Retroviruslike RetroViruses; HMRV) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/ chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious, MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLVV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans, and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard to detect "stealth" infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Alex: This is an in-depth review article of the science behind MLVs in humans, with a focus on XMRV. Its conclusion is mostly against XMRV association with ME/CFS, but it does review many of the main issues. On an anti-association stance, it is pro-contamination, but also said this: "Although false positive PCR results due to contamination in the laboratory is a frequent event, contamination on such a grand scale is beyond previous experience." They also point out the problem with low contamination rates in controls. Of particular interest to me is a discussion that looks like it will be deleted from the final document on the similarities between MLVs in animals and ME/CFS. Similarities include immune cell anergy, encephalitis, gastroenteritis etc. In other words, most ME/CFS symptoms match an MLV infection. Mice with MAIDS even have alcohol intolerance. Bye Alex PS I may post more on this later. I am currently writing a summary for my own use, but if it is completed I may post it here. This paper is full of data - like MLLVs (MLV-like viruses) can infect birds (it is found in some turkeys). MLLVs are therefore better thought of as vertebrate viruses.