http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1472087/?tool=pubmed I don't know whether this has been posted or not but thought it might be of interest. In vivo interactions of ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia viruses in mixed retrovirus infections. Evans LH, Lavignon M, Peterson K, Hasenkrug K, Robertson S, Malik F, Virtaneva K. Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Mixed retrovirus infections are the rule rather than the exception in mice and other species, including humans. Interactions of retroviruses in mixed infections and their effects on disease induction are poorly understood. Upon infection of mice, ecotropic retroviruses recombine with endogenous proviruses to generate polytropic viruses that utilize different cellular receptors. Interactions among the retroviruses of this mixed infection facilitate disease induction. Using mice infected with defined mixtures of the ecotropic Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) and different polytropic viruses, we demonstrate several dramatic effects of mixed infections. Remarkably, inoculation of F-MuLV with polytropic MuLVs completely suppressed the generation of new recombinant viruses and dramatically altered disease induction. Co-inoculation of F-MuLV with one polytropic virus significantly lengthened survival times, while inoculation with another polytropic MuLV induced a rapid and severe neurological disease. In both instances, the level of the polytropic MuLV was increased 100- to 1,000-fold, whereas the ecotropic MuLV level remained unchanged. Surprisingly, nearly all of the polytropic MuLV genomes were packaged within F-MuLV virions (pseudotyped) very soon after infection. At this time, only a fractional percentage of cells in the mouse were infected by either virus, indicating that the co-inoculated viruses had infected the same small subpopulation of susceptible cells. The profound amplification of polytropic MuLVs in coinfected mice may be facilitated by pseudotyping or, alternatively, by transactivation of the polytropic virus in the coinfected cells. This study illustrates the complexity of the interactions between components of mixed retrovirus infections and the dramatic effects of these interactions on disease processes.