@maryb Whoops, that is an error. Of course, CFS patients need to boost their Th1 cytokines, not Th2 cytokines, in order to get better. I have corrected my post now — thanks. What I also found interesting by reading those research papers is that Gram-positive bacteria induce Th1 cytokines, whereas Gram-negative bacteria induce Th2 cytokines. This fact has nothing to do with the Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate supplement, but it was just mentioned in the research. The reference given was to this paper. I am well aware that LPS (lipopolysaccharide), which comes from the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria, induces a Th2 response, and so Gram-negative bacteria will thus tend to shift the immune system to Th2, especially if the LPS from Gram-negative bacteria in the gut leaks into the blood stream. But I did not know that Gram-positive bacteria induce the desired Th1 cytokines. Gram-positive bacteria include: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus. Most bacterial probiotics are Gram positive. Gram-negative bacteria include: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Helicobacter, Spirochaetes. This makes me wonder whether ME/CFS patients should take antibiotics that target only the Gram-negative bacterial species in the gut. Streptomycin is an antibiotic that is very effective against Gram-negative bacteria, but has little effect against Gram-positive. Unfortunately it is a pretty toxic antibiotic. Monobactam antibiotics like Aztreonam target only Gram negative bacteria, but are expensive.