Premission to repost by Prof. Gavin Giovannoni There are some in the ME/CFS medical field that believe ME/CFS is 'MS Light' or 'Atypical MS'. The reason I post these articles is the fact that research in one area may spill over into another area of research or the fact that researchers reviewing a site may look at the research in another disease category that could be related to theirs and it might raise their interest level. Futhermore, research may be further ahead in another field that ME/CFS researchers wish to explore if they had the funding and the researchers to explore such as EBV, HERVs, Autoimmune diseases, Fibromyalgia, Lyme etc. The reason I am reporting this is that three ME/CFS patients recovered using off-label HAART protocol N=3, One patient did not. Miller and I could not use Dr. Snyderman blood samples although requested in our research project because of his treatment protocol. http://www.x-rx.net/blog/2011/12/update-from-michael-snyderman-md.html Epub: Nexø et al. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases? Unveiling associations of three diseases and viral loci. Immunol Res. 2015 Jun 20. Background: Autoimmune diseases encompass a plethora of conditions in which the immune system attacks its own tissue, identifying them as foreign. Multiple factors are thought to contribute to the development of immune response to self, including differences in genotypes, hormonal milieu, and environmental factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian manner. Objective: In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results: We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus was associated with each of the three diseases. Although there was a significant overlap, most loci only occurred in one of the studied disease. Remarkably, within each disease, there was a statistical interaction (synergy) between two loci. Additional synergy between retroviral loci and human lymphocyte antigens is reported for multiple sclerosis. Conclusion: We speculate the possibility that recombinants or mixed viral particles are formed and that the resulting viruses stimulate the innate immune system, thereby initiating the autoimmune response. CoI: I am the chief investigator of an investigator-led study testing the anti-HIV drug raltegravir in MS. This trial has been generously funded by Merck and sponsored by QMUL. The Above Post and Comment Below by Gavin Giovannoni Is HERV activation a trigger for the development of MS? "The following study provides in silico evidence that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) may play a role in MS and other associated autoimmune diseases. Specific HERV loci, or positions in our genomes, where these HERVs are integrated into our genome, are linked with MS, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Whether the linkage to these HERV loci are due to the HERVs or another gene, or regulatory element, in the genome close by is a moot point. However, there is other in vivo (within the body) and pathological evidence that HERVs are transcriptionally active in autoimmune diseases and the active HERV products may trigger the so called innate immune system to provide a danger signal that something is amiss in the nervous system, pancreas or joints. This danger signal may be what is required to trigger autoimmune cells to attack self and cause the disease-specific organ damage. This is why treatments that suppress HERV activation may work in these diseases and underpins our trial of raltegravir in MS. Interestingly, herpes viruses, in particular EBV, are known to transactivate HERVs and causes them to emerge from the genome. Therefore, drugs that block EBV activity may also suppress HERV activity. The so called dual viral hypothesis of MS is not a new concept and has been around for many years. I have discussed the EBV-HERV-MS link many times on this blog, therefore, for the regular readers there is noting new here." "Who knows may be we will get an answer to viral and dual-viral hypotheses of MS in the next 10-20 years." Reactions: 14 comments: KrisTuesday, June 23, 2015 10:46:00 a.m. This is interesting with regards to your study, or is this as the mouse has stated, term paper research, stating somethting you pretty much already know Does this lend anymore weight to your theory regarding Raltegravir, and when oh when will we know the results I'm pretty sure you have no investors to satisfy so why the wait? MouseDoctorTuesday, June 23, 2015 4:25:00 p.m. Investors get to hear the results begore publication as there are no invesyors publication will be when the results are announced. Tuesday, June 23, 2015 1:35:00 p.m. MS research is nowhere near where we hoped it'd be. Guess we have to just accept our fates. MouseDoctor2Tuesday, June 23, 2015 2:03:00 p.m. Well it's a lot further on than it was even 5 years ago. Tuesday, June 23, 2015 3:13:00 p.m. It's time for a paradigm change in MS, and so more and more paper like this are welcome Tuesday, June 23, 2015 3:28:00 p.m. Yep, I also believe that the EBV is the right horse to bet on BUT 10 years are too long...... we need 5 years only and then off you go for the Nobel prize. MouseDoctorTuesday, June 23, 2015 4:35:00 p.m. Maybe EBV is the answer but there is no vaccine and no proven therapy. If we want to get rid of EBV and have a drug the first port of call should be infectious mono and not MS. Remember the Charcot part 1 may fail because raltegravir is not the right drug. AnonymousTuesday, June 23, 2015 4:52:00 p.m. Then team up with someone who works on EBV vaccine or mono treatment - you should achieve quite a lot in 5 years once the hypothesis is right. KrisTuesday, June 23, 2015 7:23:00 p.m. Isn't there anti ebv specific treatments already being trialled? Isn't EBV being linked to a number of cancers and being classed as one of the oncovirus types such as hpv? What bewilders me is how for 50 years we've known Ebv is an issue yet no one has examined this further, I know many cancer researchers are looking at it. But if this is the cause, does it mean treating it will help or is it already too late? How do you suppose this relates to RRMS vs ppms? And how does immunosuppressants work when Ebv mono etc are fought by strengthening the immune system? I have spoken to a doctor with Ms who himself claims immunosuppression is not the way to go and one needs a healthy strong immune system to fight Ms KrisTuesday, June 23, 2015 7:29:00 p.m. Sorry for the numbered replies but isn't there a current trial in nasopharyngeal cancer looking at an ebv vaccine MVA-EBNA1/LMP2? To try to stop the reoccurrence of this cancer in people previously treated? So basically chemo followed by vaccine or other maintenance type effect Lisa from La HondaTuesday, June 23, 2015 4:53:00 p.m. I think we're on the right track, here... Speaking go myself: EBV age 12 Corneal herpes age 19 EBV (again!) age 30 First symptoms of MS age 30 MS flare coinciding with HSV flare age 44. I have no doubt they're all linked. Tuesday, June 23, 2015 4:54:00 p.m. Dear Dr Giovannoni, This is very interesting; could you please point me to the documentation for the software used to create this model? I would like to learn more about this. Aidan Tuesday, June 23, 2015 7:24:00 p.m. To add, I am one of those convinced of the ebv link, but does that lead us to treatment avenues or merely give us a cause as to why the malfunctioning of the immune system started? And for those with Ms its too late? Matt PerryTuesday, June 23, 2015 10:40:00 p.m. If this is the case, then how/why do induction therapies show such efficacy? What do they dungeon a herv perspective? Interesting stuff!