I was reading Dr Lerner's paper about abortive infection in Herpesviruses (suggested by @Hip , thank you), and another idea hit me on the road... 2017 Jan 31 Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology. High Prevalence of Infectious Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Indicative of T Lymphocytes as Sites of AAV Persistence. Abstract Seroepidemiology shows that infections with adeno-associated virus (AAV) are widespread, but diverse AAV serotypes isolated from humans or nonhuman primates have so far not been proven to be causes of human disease. In view of the increasing success of AAV-derived vectors in human gene therapy, definition of the in vivo sites of wild-type AAV persistence and the clinical consequences of its reactivation is becoming increasingly urgent. Here, we identify the presumed cell type for AAV persistence in the human host by highly sensitive AAV PCRs developed for the full spectrum of human AAV serotypes. In genomic-DNA samples from leukocytes of 243 healthy blood donors, 34% were found to be AAV positive, predominantly AAV type 2 (AAV2) (77%), AAV5 (19%), and additional serotypes. Roughly 11% of the blood donors had mixed AAV infections. AAV prevalence was dramatically increased in immunosuppressed patients, 76% of whom were AAV positive. Of these, at least 45% displayed mixed infections. Follow-up of single blood donors over 2 years allowed repeated detection of the initial and/or additional AAV serotypes, suggestive of fluctuating, persistent infection. Leukocyte separation revealed that AAV resided in CD3+ T lymphocytes, perceived as the putative in vivo site of AAV persistence. Moreover, infectious AAVs of various serotypes could be rescued and propagated from numerous samples. The high prevalence and broad spectrum of human AAVs in leukocytes closely follow AAV seroepidemiology. Immunosuppression obviously enhances AAV replication in parallel with activation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), reminiscent of herpesvirus-induced AAV activation. IMPORTANCE: Adeno-associated virus is viewed as apathogenic and replication defective, requiring coinfection with adenovirus or herpesvirus for productive infection. In vivo persistence of a defective virus requires latency in specialized cell types to escape the host immune response until viral spread becomes possible. Reactivation from latency can be induced by diverse stimuli, including infections, typically induced upon host immunosuppression. We show for the first time that infectious AAV is highly prevalent in human leukocytes, specifically T lymphocytes, and that AAV is strongly amplified upon immunosuppression, along with reactivation of latent human herpesviruses. In the absence of an animal model to study the AAV life cycle, our findings in the human host will advance the understanding of AAV latency, reactivation, and in vivo pathogenesis. In his 2012 paper, Dr Lerner explains that: A small group of six patients in the group-A EBV subset of CFS, additionally, had repetitive elevated-serum titers of antibody to the early lytic replication-encoded proteins, EBV dUTPase, and EBV DNA polymerase. The presence of these serum antibodies to EBV dUTPase and EBV DNA polymerase indicated EBV abortive lytic replication in these 6 CFS patients. My question would be: Would it be possible that these antibodies may sign co-infection between the herpesvirus and AAV? This other publication about Herpesviruses and virus-helper activities suggested me that a link may exist: Definition of herpes simplex virus type 1 helper activities for adeno-associated virus early replication events. "We demonstrated that the HSV-1 DNA polymerase complex (UL30/UL42) was critical to enhance AAV DNA replication to a significant level in transfected cells and that its catalytic activity was involved in this process."