Full title: Gene Therapy-Induced Antigen-Specific Tregs Inhibit Neuro-inflammation and Reverse Disease in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis This research is a long way from use on humans, but it demonstrates a very powerful approach based on the fact that there are specific mechanisms to induce immune tolerance for substances created in the liver. The liver is a very active organ in metabolic terms. It stores energy and converts many substances that might accumulate as toxins into useful biochemicals. This activity could trigger an autoimmune response since many biochemicals originate there, and might be considered foreign. The biological solution is to stimulate T-reg cells to control such immune-cell actions. This group used a viral vector (AAV) to insert a gene for a molecule they wish the body to tolerate (myelin) into liver cells. This appears to have had remarkable success in reducing symptoms of a demyelinating disease, and in some cases reversing the disease, in mice. Strictly my own opinion: I doubt humans were the first to discover this. Liver diseases cause a wide range of problems in other organ systems which can make victims more susceptible to infectious agents. Some of these must have evolved to exploit this. Many people, including some on this forum, have liver abnormalities which don't ordinarily count as serious medical diseases. Here's an example: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. I suspect a connection between the liver and autoimmunity is responsible.