I got interested in this topic after testing nearly off the charts for the substance in the subject line. It is part of the NT-proBNP panel they give to heart attack patients (it was FDA approved very recently, around 2010 I believe). It was part of my intake testing at an integrative center I went to not long before my autonomic nervous system went insane. The doctor was only familiar with its use to predict outcomes in heart disease, unfortunately, but it is involved in so much more mayhem! Basically, it's a carbohydrate-binding protein that signals your body to deposit fibrin. This leads to scarring of internal organs and, perhaps more interesting to this community, it helps viruses and other pathogens evade the immune system! Elevated levels are tied to poor outcomes in all circumstances that I've seen. Here are some research links to its role in: Cardiac fibrosis http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22016505/ Pulmonary fibrosis http://ai.jsaweb.jp/fulltext/056010057/056010057_index.html Kidney failure http://ajp.amjpathol.org/article/S0002-9440(10)61796-8/abstract Hepatic fibrosis http://m.pnas.org/content/103/13/5060 And the infectious stuff! Galectin-3 helps HSV-1 hide in the nervous system http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI3381633/ Helps HIV to infect cells http://pag.ias2013.org/Abstracts.aspx?AID=2973 Did I mention it helps cancer spread? http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:GLYC.0000014084.01324.15 But it's not all bad. It kills candida! http://m.jimmunol.org/content/177/7/4718.short Modified citrus pectin is supposed to be able to lower it but from the one set of hard data I saw it took feeding rats a 2% solution over several weeks to lower it by something like a third. I guess that corresponds to a human dose of 10 - 50 g per day depending on how you scale it. The stuff is pretty expensive. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0018683 I would be quite curious to see if this was elevated in people with chronic viral infections. The test was around $180 if I recall, though it was covered as part of the integrative package. Insurance won't cover it unless you have a heart attack. Anyway hope this is of interest to some people! P.S. My level was 50 and the 97.5th percentile was at 25. I checked the patent application and the highest level they recorded was 96 in 1200 or so people.