http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=29180 Author(s) Ekua W. Brenu, Gunn M. Atkinson, Mieke L. van Driel, Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Don R. Staines, Sonya M. Marshall-Gradisnik ABSTRACT Vaccines have been shown to cause differential expression of genes and increase antibody titers against antigens. Influenza vaccines may have an effect on unexplained disorders such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Immunological changes have been identified following immunization with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). Theobjective of this pilot study was to examine the consequences of TIV on cytokine and cytotoxic genes in CFS/ME. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were preferentially isolated from whole blood of 7 CFS/ME patients and 8 controls. Following total RNA extraction and synthesis of cDNA, reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine the expression levels of mRNAs for cytotoxic genes (perforin (PRF1), granzyme A (GZMA), granzyme B (GZMB) and cytokine genes.GZMB was significantly increased overall in the CFS/ME patients compared to the controls. GZMA was significantly increased 28 days after vaccination while PRF1 was reduced prevaccination but increased 14 days post-vaccination in the CFS/ME patients. There were no significant changes in cytokine genes pre or post vaccination. Administration of TIVmay increase the expression of lytic genes in CFS/ME and this may contribute to the increase in cytotoxic activity we observed in these patients post vaccination.