The 12th Invest in ME Research Conference June, 2017, Part 2
MEMum presents the second article in a series of three about the recent 12th Invest In ME International Conference (IIMEC12) in London.
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Do dietary nucleotides benefit immunity?

Discussion in 'General Treatment' started by Ema, Dec 6, 2017 at 9:34 AM.

  1. Ema

    Ema Senior Member

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    From the paper, Gil A. Modulation of the immune response mediated by dietary nucleotides. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2002;56:1-4.

    "Dietary nucleotides have been reportedly beneficial, especially for infants, since they positively influence lipid metabolism, immunity, and tissue growth, development and repair.

    Rapidly proliferating tissues, such as the immune system or the intestine are not able to fulfil the needs of cell nucleotides exclusively by de novo synthesis and they preferentially utilize the salvage pathway recovering nucleosides and nucleobases from blood and diet.

    In the present review we describe the modulatory effect of dietary nucleotides on the immune system together with some of their effects on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Dietary nucleotides influence lymphocyte maturation, activation and proliferation.

    Likewise, they affect the lymphocyte subset populations in both the small intestine and blood.

    Moreover, they are involved in enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and delayed hypersensitivity as well as allograft and tumour responses.

    In addition, they contribute to the immunoglobulin response in early life, having a positive effect on infection. In fact the incidence and duration of acute diarrhoea is lower in infants fed supplemented-nucleotide formulas.

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary nucleotides modulate the immune system are practically unknown.

    Dietary nucleotides have been shown to enhance the production and the genetic expression of IL-6 and IL- 8 by foetal small intestinal explants.

    Dietary nucleotides may influence protein biosynthesis as well as signal membrane transduction mediated by the interaction of exogenous nucleosides and their receptors may also contribute to modulate the expression of a number of genes, some of which can directly affect the levels of intestinal cytokines."

    Has anyone ever tried nucleotides? Any experiences to report?
     
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  2. Ema

    Ema Senior Member

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    From the same paper as above, "It has been proposed that dietary nucleotides exert effects upon cellular immune functions by acting on the T-helper=inducer population with the predominant effect on the initial phase of antigen processing and lymphocyte proliferation.

    The suggested mechanism would be the suppression of uncommitted T-lymphocyte responses as demonstrated by higher activities of deoxynucleotidyl transferase, a marker of undifferentiated lymphocytes, in primary lymphoid organs of mice fed a nucleotide-free diet (Kulkarni et al, 1989).

    Another hypothesis is that exogenous nucleotides may modulate T-helper (Th) cell-mediated antibody production (Jyonouchi et al, 1994). It has been suggested that dietary nucleotides may favour the balance of T cell differentiation to Th-2 cells, which are mainly involved in the B-cell response and in the suppression of pro-inflammatory reactions induced by Th-1 cells.

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary nucleotides modulate the immune system are practically unknown. It has been suggested that the small intestine should play a key role in the regulatory effects of nucleotides upon the immune response.

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue can initiate and regulate T cell development and may act as a thymus analogue (Walker, 1996). Dietary nucleotides have been shown to enhance the production and the genetic expression of IL-6 and IL-8 by foetal small intestinal explants when challenged with IL-1 beta, the response being nucleotide concentration dependent.

    Furthermore, the addition of AMP to the culture media resulted in the suppression of crypt cell proliferation followed by the restoration of differentiation and the induction of apoptosis across the human small intestinal epithelium (Sa´nchez-Pozo et al, 1999).

    Dietary nucleotides may influence the protein biosynthesis by regulating the intracellular nucleotide pool. In addition, signal membrane transduction mediated by the interaction of exogenous nucleosides and their receptors may also contribute to modulate the expression of a number of genes, some of which can directly affect the levels of intestinal cytokines (Figure 1)."
     
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  3. Chocolove

    Chocolove Tournament of the Phoenix - Rise Again

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    7 Health Benefits of Dietary Nucleotides (From Meat and Supplements ...
    https://selfhacked.com/blog/dietary-nucleotides-health-benefits-of-nucleotides/
    Oct 24, 2017 - Introduction to Nucleotide Supplements. Dietary nucleotides (from food and supplements) provide a range of health benefits. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. One nucleotide is one “unit” of a DNA or RNA strand. Our body needs billions of these any time a cell divides to make a new ...
    The Benefits of Nucleotides · ‎2) Nucleotides Repair Your ...

    Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to ...
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3626726/
    by J Riera - ‎2013 - ‎Cited by 10 - ‎Related articles
    Apr 8, 2013 - Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment. Joan Riera .... SIgA concentration was analyzed using nephelometric quantification (BN™ II System, Siemens, Deerfield, IL, USA) according to the validated manufacturer protocol. Results were ...

    Nutrition Support for the Critically Ill Patient: A Guide to Practice
    https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1420039199
    Gail A. Cresci, Ph.D. - 2016 - ‎Medical
    TABLE 41.4 (CONTINUED) Sample Enteral Feeding Protocol for ICU Patients Orders for Tube-Feeding Protocol (Using a Single Line Strike through Any ... arginine, dietary nucleotides, and omega-3 fatty acids, has been shown to improve immune functioning, (47,48) which ultimately decreases mortality, morbidity, and ...

    Chapter 7 | Feel Good Nucleotides
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    External supplementation of dietary nucleotides is a good regimen against mitochondrial dysfunction” (Sonkawade 2012). Nucleotides are able to help restore mitochondrial function and Arnaud was able to demonstrate that “dietary nucleotides promote earlier restoration of the ileal mitochondrial function after chronic ...

    NUCLEOTIDES FOR HEALTH: Nutritional
    www.nucleotides4health.org/nutritional.html
    Here you will find our archive of Nutritional related nucleotide papers that have been published in recognised scientific reviews. Simply click on any title that you wish to explore further to view an abstract where available. Publications are listed alphabetically by author, the most recent additions to our collection are ...

    Nucleotides the 'Next Big Thing' in Ergogenic Supplements? Faster ...
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    Aug 27, 2015 - As such, dietary nucleotides are necessary to maintain immune function, tissue growth and cellular repair. ... young men and ten women participating in the acute heavy resistance exercise protocol (AHREP) following a loading period with either a nucleotide supplement or placebo supplementation phase.
     
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  4. Ema

    Ema Senior Member

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    This one too...on mitochondria:

    "Orally administered nucleotides decrease acetoacetate:beta-hydrodybutyrate ratio, an indicator of mitochondrial redox state, suggesting less oxidative stress and restored mitochondrial function after cellular injury (Perez et al., 2004).

    In addition, the concentrations of ATP (along with adenosine diphosphate and monophosphate) and adenine nucleotides, which are the carriers of electrons and the final acceptors of the energy generated during the mitochondrial energy coupling process, were superior after nucleotides administration.

    Therefore, the utilization of dietary nucleotides might enhance the efficacy of oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport, and the turnover between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which would stimulate the production and storage of energy in the cell (Perez et al. 2004).

    Furthermore, dietary nucleotides normalized activities of mitochondrial enzymes (e.g. ATPase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase) in isolated mitochondria after chronic stress (Arnaudet et al., 2003), suggesting earlier recovery of altered mitochondrial function after nucleotides intake.

    Finally, exogenous nucleotides might enhance reparation of damaged mitochondrial DNA that can appear as a consequence of heavy exercise (Jafari et al., 2005). "

    Sergej M. Ostojic. Performance-enhancing effects of dietary nucleotides: do mitochondria play a role? Montenegrin journal of sports science and medicine. 2015;4(2):35-36.
     
    Last edited: Dec 6, 2017 at 12:34 PM
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