Relevant to another recent thread on interferon, and suggesting a remedy: I have done some reading up on interferon, depression and related issues and have decided to try 5-HTP for current low mood. I'm already taking omega-3s, and it may be that my leaky-gut regime (which I have been on for almost 2 years) is taking me back through the stages of developing ME and I am reaching my depressive early stage, which I seem to recall one of the numerous abstracts and papers I viewed today cited as being characterised by particularly-high interferon levels. My brain is getting very tired, so for simplicity I will just paste my notes on what I have found: Interferon and ME/CFS Abstract here may be relevant: http://www.jwatch.org/na33597/2014/...ion-induced-interferon?query=topic_depression It says: “February 13, 2014 An Easy Preventive Treatment of Depression Induced by Interferon Steven Dubovsky, MDreviewing Su K-P et al. Biol Psychiatry 2014 Jan 27. Prophylaxis with omega-3s decreases the risk. Pretreatment with antidepressants can prevent depression caused by interferon-α (IFN) treatment of hepatitis C and other disorders, but antidepressants can be complicated to use in this setting. To find an alternative prophylaxis, researchers examined the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for just 2 weeks prior to 6 months of treatment with IFN and ribavirin. A total of 162 hepatitis C patients were randomized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 3.50 g), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 1.75 g), or placebo; 152 completed IFN treatment and were included in the analysis. Over the course of IFN treatment, the incidence of depression was significantly lower with EPA pretreatment (10%) than with placebo (30%; DHA pretreatment, 28%). When IFN-induced depression did occur, onset was significantly delayed with EPA or DHA pretreatment (12 weeks vs. 5 weeks with placebo). DHA pretreatment increased DHA levels, whereas EPA pretreatment increased both EPA and DHA levels.” This abstract : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816380/?report=classic Which I got by searching online for abstract from ME Research UK list of publications says: “Kuibitang (identical to Chinese Gui-Pi-Tang, Japanese Kihi-to) markedly inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 production and increases interferon-γ production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CFS patients (35).” That also says : “In animal experiments, treatment with Peony root (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) inhibits 5-HT synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression, which may reduce fatigue, both during exercise and the resting state (24).” This seems inconsistent with associations between depression and fatigue. Why would reducing 5-HT synthesis reduce fatigue? Maybe an example of the unreliability of animal ‘models’. Numerous abstracts in ME Research publications doc refer to interferons being high in ME/CFS. So could reducing leaky gut actually increase interferon and thus depression, thus possibly explaining my development of mood swings about 2 years after starting leaky-gut regime? Is it just a phase? Should I take 5-HTP? Something breaks down tryptophan to kynurenine. This paper discusses this process: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021918/ Paper here http://www.cfids-cab.org/cfs-inform/Immunology/patarca-montero.etal01.pdf says: “Typical Th1‐type cytokines include IL‐2 and interferon‐gamma, and some of the therapies induce their production.” So could that mean that my self-treatment is correcting the TH1/2 balance? Relevant info about 5-HTP on Examine.com here: http://examine.com/supplements/5-HTP/#ref22 NB there have been a number of references to kynurenine on the Resistant Starch thread recently but I can't recall the context. Will post another message or edit shortly. Edit: Maybe just do a search for 'tryptophan' or 'kynurenine' in this thread.