D-Lactate & Panic Disorder - ME/CFS Anxiety 1990:*Gorman J M; Goetz R R; Dillon D; Liebowitz M R; Fyer A J; Davies S; Klein D F Sodium D-lactate infusion of panic disorder patients. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology*1990;3(3):181-9. Nineteen patients with panic disorder received sodium D,L-lactate (racemic) and pure sodium D-lactate infusions in a pilot study. Sodium D-lactate, which is less metabolically active than L-lactate, produced panic attacks in half the patients. D-Lactate also produced hypocapnia and alkalosis, indicating hyperventilation. These findings suggest that metabolism of lactate is not necessary for the induction of panic in susceptible patients. D-Lactate appears similar to other agents that cause panic in its capacity to stimulate respiration in the preliminary study.