I started checking out osteoporosis, I was amazed at what I found. As I continued looking for info on osteoporosis I found cardiomyopathy and all of usual of neurological diseases, all dependent upon multiple elements of the Deadlock Quartet. So then here we have CFS, FMS, MS, Pernicious anemia, ALS, Supra Nuclear Palsy, Subacute combined degeneration, Alzheimer’s, elevated MMA, elevated Hcy, B12 deficiency, folate deficiency are all associated with increased incidence and severity of osteoporosis and cardiomyopathy. So how much cardiomyopathy and osteoporosis do we have around here? I had congestive heart failure which can be a manifestation of cardiomyopathy. l-Carnitine Fumarate and Isovaleryl-l-Carnitine Fumarate Accelerate the Recovery of Bone Volume/Total Volume Ratio after Experimetally Induced Osteoporosis in Pregnant Mice http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00223-008-9109-6?LI=true Abstract Anabolic skeletal agents have recently broadened the therapeutic options for osteoporosis by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone turnover, bone density, bone size, and bone microarchitecture. We recently demonstrated that two new l-carnitine derivatives, l-carnitine fumarate (LC) and isovaleryl-l-carnitine fumarate (Iso-V-LC), stimulated osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. We here investigated, by histomorphometry in a mouse model of osteoporosis, the impact of these compounds on the repair of trabecular bone and the osteoblast involvement in this process. Fifty-nine inbred adult female CD1 mice in pregnancy were assigned to four treatment groups: (1) controls, mice fed a standard normocalcemic pre- and postpartal diet; (2) Hypo, mice fed a low-calcium isocaloric prepartal diet and a standard postpartal diet; (3) LC, mice fed a group 2-type diet supplemented post-partum with LC; (4) Iso-V-LC, mice fed a group 2-type diet supplemented post-partum with Iso-V-LC. Bone volume/total volume ratio (BV/TV), bone perimeter, osteoblast surface/bone surface, and osteoblast number/bone surface were measured from sections of L3 and L4 vertebral bodies obtained from animals killed on the day of delivery (controls and Hypo) and on days 7, 14, and 21 after delivery (all groups). BV/TV and all osteoblast-based indexes were significantly higher in LC and Iso-V-LC than in Hypo mice at each time point, and Iso-V-LC at the end of the treatment attained levels observed in controls. In conclusion, Iso-V-LC and, to a lesser extent, LC accelerated the recovery of normal BV/TV level after a hypocalcemic diet. L-Carnitine and Isovaleryl L-Carnitine Fumarate Positively Affect Human Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation In Vitro http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00223-004-0147-4?LI=true Abstract Age-related bone loss is characterized by decreased osteoblast activity, possibly related to the reduction of energy production. Carnitine promotes energy availability and its concentration declines with age; Therefore, two Carnitine derivatives, L-carnitine fumarate (LC) and isovaleryl L-carnitine fumarate (Iso-V-LC), have been tested on several parameters of human osteoblasts in vitro. Both compounds significantly increased osteoblast activity, but the new compound Iso-V-LC was more efficient than LC at lower concentrations. They both significantly enhanced cell proliferation, [3H]-proline incorporation and the expression of collagen type I (COLLI), and the bone sialoproteins (BSPs) and osteopontin (OPN). The percentage of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)–positive cells and the secretion of osteocalcin were not modified by LC and Iso-V-LC. Both molecules increased the formation of mineralized nodules, but Iso-V-LC reached the maximum effect at a concentration 10-fold lower than that of LC. Furthermore, we showed that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II mRNA levels were not modified by the treatment. However, the two compounds induced an increase of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and a decrease of IGFBP-5 in both osteoblast lysates and the extracellular matrix (ECM). In conclusion these data suggest that carnitine and, in particular, its new derivative, Iso-V-LC supplementation in the elderly may stimulate osteoblast activity and decrease age-related bone loss. Press on the “look inside” button and at the top of the right half of the page. It explains that osteoblast used to thought of as using glucose for energy. It turns out they use fatty acid (transported by LCF) oxidation in mitochondria with AdoCbl to produce the cells that grow bone. Another assumption hits the dust. A few years ago a study was published that linked MeCbl to decreased second hip fractures in elderly women, implied improved bone density. I hypothesized at the time it was increased osteoblast activity from better cell reproduction and methylation. This adds a whole new perspective. This was published in 2004. Put it together it sure looks like it’s the Deadlock Quartet that could possibly prevent or heal osteoporosis From a study published in 1994 “We find that PD patients have a higher incidence of severe osteoporosis” http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/8190408 ABSTRACT Bone mineral density (BMD) in 22 patients (three females, 19 males, aged 58-76 years) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) was measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) using a M&SE OsteoTech 300 scanner. The BMDs of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae were measured and the mean density was presented as g cm-2. The BMD of the PD patients was compared with normal BMD values within the same age groups, and the patients were interpreted as normal, suffering mild osteoporosis or severe osteoporosis. The patients were divided into two groups according to (a) the Hoehn and Yahr (H-Y) scale as high or low, or based on (b) the duration of the disease as long or short, for comparison. The prevalence of abnormal BMD in each subgroup of patients was calculated. The results show that the BMD of all the PD patients was lower than those of the normal controls. The PD patients with a high H-Y scale had a higher prevalence of severe osteoporosis. However, the difference between any two groups, separated by the two criteria, is not significant by Fisher's test. We find that PD patients have a higher incidence of severe osteoporosis. http://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(05)00151-8/abstract Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in elderly women with Parkinson’s disease Abstract Purpose Incidence of hip fractures among elderly patients with Parkinson’s disease is high. Recent studies have found that levodopa induces hyperhomocysteinemia in Parkinson’s disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia is considered to be a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men and women. Very high plasma homocysteine levels are a feature of homocystinuria, characterized by the early onset of osteoporosis. To determine the association between plasma homocysteine concentration and the risk of hip fracture in Parkinson’s disease patients receiving levodopa, we prospectively studied a cohort of elderly women with Parkinson’s disease. Methods We studied 199 elderly women with Parkinson’s disease receiving levodopa therapy, from whom blood samples had been obtained to measure plasma homocysteine. Age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fractures were calculated for quartiles of plasma homocysteine concentrations. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for quartiles of homocysteine values. Results The mean duration of follow-up was 4.9 years. Hip fractures occurred in 66 patients. The age-adjusted incidence rates per 1000 person-years for hip fractures, from the lowest to the highest quartile of plasma homocysteine levels, were 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.24), 1.57 (95% CI, 0.98-2.19), 1.21 (95% CI, 0.61-1.72), and 26.98 (95% CI, 16.48-37.24). The risk of hip fractures was greater in the highest quartile than that in the lowest, and the risk was almost 2.4 times higher. Conclusion These findings suggest that the homocysteine concentration is an important risk factor for hip fractures in Parkinson’s disease patients receiving levodopa. The role of nutrition in osteoporosis. http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/7881322 low intakes of vitamin D--and possibly magnesium, boron, fluoride and vitamins K, B12, B6 and folic acid (particularly if co-existing)--may pre-dispose to osteoporosis Osteoporosis-related bone fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity, with women being particularly affected. Osteoporosis is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass; adult bone mass depends upon the peak attained and the rate of subsequent loss; each depends on the interaction of genetic, hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. An adequate supply of calcium is essential to attain maximum bone mass, and adult intakes below about 500 mg/day may predispose to low bone mass. Supplementation with calcium may conserve bone at some skeletal sites, but whether this translates into reduced fracture rates is not clear. Chronically low intakes of vitamin D--and possibly magnesium, boron, fluoride and vitamins K, B12, B6 and folic acid (particularly if co-existing)--may pre-dispose to osteoporosis. Similarly, chronically high intakes of protein, sodium chloride, alcohol and caffeine may also adversely affect bone health. The typical Western diet (high in protein, salt and refined, processed foods) combined with an increasing sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the increasing incidence of osteoporosis in the elderly. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/11/80/ Study protocol Rationale and design of the B-PROOF study, a randomized controlled trial on the effect of supplemental intake of vitamin B12 and folic acid on fracture incidence Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12 and folate status are associated with an increased fracture risk. As vitamin B12 and folate intake and status play a large role in homocysteine metabolism, it is hypothesized that supplementation with these B-vitamins will reduce fracture incidence in elderly people with an elevated homocysteine concentration. The results of this study will be available later in 2013. In the B-PROOF study, you can go read the protocol at the link above; they even apologize for using two nutrients, folic acid and B12. They leave out the apparently critical factor of l-carnitine fumarate and use the worst possible forms of folate and b12. No wonder research results are so inconsistent.