It's quite likely I am attributing too much to candida, however every benefit seen by people taking RS I have also got from taking Candex; a fungal wall digesting enzyme formula. I don't believe that is a coincidence since we are talking about gut flora which yeast/fungi like Candida are a part of and cohabit along with bacteria. In regards to people with Diabetes and/or supposed "healthy people" there is currently no accurate method to test people definitely for candida. Even stool samples do not accurately reflect the microbiological state of the small intestine viz analysis as you already know. A huge number of people hypothetically could have fungi cells outnumbering bacteria in the small intestine and no one would be the wiser. Sometimes I strongly suspect this is the case in that in the modern world nearly everyone has taken antibiotics at one point or another in their life and given fungi such as candida the opportunity to take over. The issue with diabetics is more complex/distinct in that it is an insulin issue as opposed to a strict blood glucose one. The needs of the body will always be greater than that of candida in terms of absolute quantity of glucose needed meaning insulin resistance could effectively mask this effect versus a normal non-diabetic person. Also there is a matter of degree of infection. Not everyone with candida will have it necessarily penetrate the gut membrane. I admit I could be wrong. I like your HPA axis theory. The gut has potentially hundreds of species of microbes and the added complexity of hormonal/neurotransmitter and genetic interactions make it largely a black box as you have pointed out. I am merely speculating/rationalizing based on my experience as are most people who are trying to figure out how RS actually works. Hopefully more people trying, experimenting and looking into this will help solve the mystery. My hunch is that RS may be even more effective than Candex at eliminating candida. I am already at 2.5tbsp of RS a day and today I had no nausea form taking 2x Candex capsules. Next thing I wonder is might the enzymes in Candex or Syntol or any digestive enzymes containing amylase's interfere and digest RS? I saw Dr. B G takes syntol... I have taken the liquid before and it didn't work for me. I take these capsules and they do the trick.