Boosting Mitochondria May Not Only Increase Energy, But Also Lead To Complete Viral Clearance New study: The mitochondrial respiratory chain has a critical role in the antiviral process in Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. The above study compared mice strains that were able to completely clear coxsackievirus B (CVB) infection, to mice strains that could not clear this virus and had lingering infection with immune activation. The study was in the context of coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis, but I think CVB myocarditis may be an excellent viral model for studying chronic fatigue syndrome, since chronic lingering CVB infection is strongly associated with CFS. After 90 days, the study authors found that the non-clearing mice showed permanently restricted mitochondrial complex I activity, whereas the mice that cleared the virus normalized all four mitochondrial complexes. In general, the authors found that reduced CVB3 titers correlated with increased complex I and III activity. So mitochondrial complexes I and III are possibly the ones you want to boost the most, to try to get viral clearance, if you have enterovirus / coxsackievirus B associated chronic fatigue syndrome. Supplements that boost mitochondrial complexes I and III include: pyrroloquinoline quinone, gingko biloba, and melatonin (at night). The paper concluded: "the regulation of energy metabolism appears crucial for an effective virus elimination and may be of prognostic and therapeutic significance." So intriguingly, it seems that low energy output from mitochondria may not only cause fatigue, but worse still, it seems to prevent the clearance of enterovirus from the tissues. So boosting mitochondria, particularly complexes I and III, may not only provide a welcome increase in energy, but may also help clear viral infections. Boosters of Mitochondrial Complexes: Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates complex I. Ref: 1 Gingko biloba stimulates complexes I and III. Ref: 1 Melatonin stimulates complexes I and IV. Ref: 1 Methylene blue increases mitochondrial complex IV by 30%. Ref: 1 Methylphenidate (Ritalin) stimulates complexes II and IV. Refs: 1, 2 Deprenyl stimulates complex IV. Ref: 1 Bezafibrate stimulates complex IV. Ref: 1 Decylubiquinone (co-enzyme Q10 analogue) increased complex I / III and complex II / III activities by 64% and 80% respectively. Ref: 1 Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Complexes: Metformin partially inhibits complex I. MDMA (ecstasy) inhibits complex I in mice. Cocaine inhibits complex I . Rotenone (an insecticide, pesticide and piscicide) inhibits complex I. Pyrethroid pesticides like permethrin, often used as pet flea killer, is a potent inhibitor of complex I. Poliovirus inhibits complex II. Organophosphate pesticide malathion inhibits complex IV. Supplements That Boost Mitochondrial Function: Creatine. Glutamine protects mitochondrial structure and function in oxygen toxicity. High doses of nicotinamide prevent oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction in a cellular model and improve motor deficit in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress (ref: 1). Q10 Take co-enzyme Q10 with food! Q10 facilitates the conversion of nutrients into energy in the mitochondria. So take with meals. Alpha lipoic acid + acetyl-L-carnitine. Magnesium. Malic acid. Coconut oil / MCT oil. Taurine. D-ribose. Supplements That Boost Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Mitochondrial biogenesis = birth of new mitochondria. There are around a few hundred to a few thousand mitochondria in each cell, and the average lifespan of a mitochondrion is around 2 to 4 weeks, after which it needs replacement with a new mitochondrion (ref: 1). Dave Whitlock thinks that CFS may not just be linked to reduced mitochondrial function, but also to reduced mitochondrial numbers, due to not enough replacement mitochondria being made. So generating new mitochondria may be a good idea. Quercetin promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. Resveratrol. Leucine (and Branched Chain Amino Acids). R-alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine. Isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, biochanin A). Caffeine. Hydroxytyrosol (from olive oil, and olive leaf extract). Commercial name: Hidrox. Pioglitazone (Actos), an antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic drug. Estradiol (hormone). Pyrroloquinoline quinone (possibly a new vitamin). Caloric Restriction (fasting) promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. Erythropoietin. Cold exposure. Hypoxia. SRT1720 (new drug from Sirtris Pharmaceuticals). Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cell. Triiodothyronine (T3). DHEA. Pyruvate. Lactate. Lithium. Also of interest: Wikipedia's article on complex III says: "mutations in complex III cause exercise intolerance". Given this, I wonder if virally induced restrictions in complex III might explain the post exertional malaise (PEM) in CFS, which is an exercise intolerance? It possibly adds weight to the idea of boosting complex I and III as a CFS treatment.