Couldnt think of a good title so just throw up the main issue i wanted to discuss. Immune suppression can come from bone marrow suppression as bone marrow is used to make granulocytes and from there other immune cells such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, white blood cells etc etc . Testing i had awhile back when i was in the griffith/bond uni cfs nk function study, showed i had low granulocytes, which at the time i did consider a reason for my episodes of mild neutropenia i was getting at the time, pre valcyte. Chronic infections can lower neutrophils as well as other immune cells which probably puts a strain on the supply of bone marrow for granulocytes. I think when us me/cfsers show signs of a part of our immune system functioning low, its a sign our immune system is slowly burning out, maybe an issue with bone marrow production. This i think is more likely to occur the longer one has me/cfs. The early stages many of these immune cells will be pumping out high numbers indicating active infections going on. Cautionary note on antivirals, they can suppress bone marrow production and thus some immune cells especially the stronger drugs like valcyte. So constant monitoring is required. These viruses i think still need to be treated but be on the look out as something like neutropenia can leave u open for bacterial infections, similar in away that people on chemo are at a higher risk of infections. So how can we treat these things. taking certain things into consideration such as antivirals which could be stopped if viral load has been lowered. But one just has neutropenia, maybe an undiagnosed bacterial infection or lyme or dam sinusitis, or maybe low lymphocytes. Most of us have heard of immunovir and probably a few less of cycloferon but they are both in a group of drugs called interferon inducers. So they stimulate the body to make more interferon which has antiviral properties itself but also increases nk function which is something most of us know. But what i didnt realise until recently is that they stimulate bone marrow production. So theoretically if one has some type of low immune function, say neutropenia as this is common in us, then using interferon inducers can help correct this. Also i read somewhere today on someone having low total lymphocytes, probably a tiring immune system, increasing bone barrow production and granulocytosis could probably help. The traditional treatment for neutropenia is injections of Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF) it quite expensive and one has to fit into a strict criteria. Many of us wont have this available to us. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3622854 - immunovir Another interferon inducer, Amixin- Stimulates bone marrow stem cells in a dose-dependent increases antibody production, reduces the degree of immunosuppression, restores the ratio of T-suppressors and T-helper cells. Effective with the various viral infections (including those caused by viruses, other pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections, hepatitis, herpes). http://drrmed.blogspot.com.au/2010/09/amixin.html Cycloferon - The medicine induces high titers of interferon in organs and tissues, containing lymphoid elements (spleen, liver, and lungs), activates the stem cells of a bone marrow by stimulating granulocytes production. http://www.polysan-ru.com/resources/files/INSTRUCTION CYCL injections 2009.pdf Theres alot more information and studies to be found researching. Its a pitty that the majority of the work was done by soviet type countries and not spread around researchers from other countries. Also there are other options out there. We need to find real treatments to strengthen our immune system. On their on or in some type of combination with anti infection agents. I feel this is important also for those who do antivirals treatments with good success but have troubles sustaining this improvement. Ampligen would probably be the answer, but it also is an interferon inducer and probably alot stronger then immunovir etc I think its an avenue that needs looking deeper into, maybe by big pharma?? But hey, make it affordable and indicated for ME so we dont have to dick around with off label prescribing. cheers!!!