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Blood Products Advisory Committee Meeting Announcement (BPAC) December 14-15, 2010

Discussion in 'Media, Interviews, Blogs, Talks, Events about XMRV' started by Otis, Nov 26, 2010.

  1. Otis

    Otis Señor Mumbler

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    http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/Calendar/ucm234871.htm


    December 14-15, 2010
    - December 14 from 8 a.m. to approximately 5:30 p.m.
    - December 15 from 8 a.m. to approximately 12:45 p.m.

    Hilton Washington DC/North,
    620 Perry Pkwy., Gaithersburg, MD

    Agenda

    On December 14, 2010,
    (1) in the morning, the committee will discuss the risk of dengue virus infection in blood donors.
    (2) In the afternoon, the committee will discuss murine leukemia virus-related human retroviruses and blood safety.

    On December 15, 2010, in the morning, the committee will hear updates on the following topics:
    (1) November 4 and 5, 2010, meeting of the Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability and
    (2) December 9 and 10, 2010, FDA workshop entitled Product Development Program for Interventions in Patients With Severe Bleeding Due to Trauma and Other Causes, and
    (3) Research programs in the Laboratories of Hemostasis and Plasma Derivatives, Division of Hematology, Office of Blood Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.

    Meeting Materials

    Materials for this meeting will be available on the 2010 Meeting Materials, Blood Products Advisory Committee page

    Public Participation Information

    Interested persons may present data, information, or views, orally or in writing, on issues pending before the committee.
    * Written submissions may be made to the contact person on or before December 7, 2010
    * Oral presentations from the public will be scheduled between approximately 10:15 a.m. and 11 a.m. and between 3:45 p.m. and 4:15 p.m. on December 14, 2010, and between approximately 11:30 a.m. and 12 noon on December 15, 2010. Those individuals interested in making formal oral presentations should notify the contact person and submit a brief statement of the general nature of the evidence or arguments they wish to present, the names and addresses of proposed participants, and an indication of the approximate time requested to make their presentation on or before November 29, 2010. Time allotted for each presentation may be limited. If the number of registrants requesting to speak is greater than can be reasonably accommodated during the scheduled open public hearing session, FDA may conduct a lottery to determine the speakers for the scheduled open public hearing session. The contact person will notify interested persons regarding their request to speak by November 30, 2010.

    ETA Agenda Details
    Tuesday, December 14, 2010
    8:00 a.m. Opening Remarks, Blaine Hollinger, M.D., Chair
    Statement of Conflicts of Interest, Announcements
    8:10 a.m.

    Topic I: Risk of Dengue Virus Infection in Blood Donors

    1. Introduction and Background of Dengue Virus Infection, Deborah Taylor, Ph.D., DETTD, OBRR, FDA (10)
    2. Dengue Virus Epidemiology in the U.S. and its Territories, Kay Tomashek, M.D., CDC (15)
    3. Risk Model to Define Rate of Infectious Units During Dengue Virus Outbreaks: Endemic vs. Non-Endemic Areas, Lyle Peterson, M.D., M.P.H., CDC (25)
    4. Update on Dengue Virus Panel Development, Maria Rios, Ph.D., DETTD, OBRR, FDA (15)
    5. Overview of Data on Blood Donor Testing and Transfusion Transmission of Dengue Virus, Michael Busch, M.D., Ph.D., Blood Systems Research Institute (15)
    6. Experience with Dengue Virus Antigen Tests, Harold Margolis, CDC (15)
    7. Recent Experience in Testing Blood Donors in Puerto Rico and Key West, FL, Susan Stramer, Ph.D., American Red Cross (15)

    10:00 a.m. Break
    10:15 a.m. Open Public Hearing
    11:00 a.m.

    Open Committee Discussion
    Questions for the Committee
    12:00 p.m. Lunch
    1:00 p.m.

    Topic II: MLV-related Human Retroviruses and Blood Safety

    1. Introduction and Background, Indira Hewlett, Ph.D., DETTD, OBRR, FDA
    2. Summary of Current Research on MLV-related Human Retroviruses and Disease Association, Jonathan Stoye, Ph.D., NIMR, UK ( 25) (oh joy)
    3. Recent Studies of Epidemiology of MLV-related Human Retroviruses:
    i. U.S. Study, Shyh-Ching Lo, M.D., OCTGT, FDA
    ii. U.S. Study. Maureen Hanson, Ph.D., Cornell University
    iii. UK Study, Judy Mikovits, Ph.D. Whitmore Peterson Institute
    4. Animal Studies: Potential Transfusion Transmission of MLV-related Human Retroviruses, Francois Villinger, Emory University
    5. Update of Blood XMRV Working Group Activities, Graham Simmons, Ph.D., BSRI
    6. Prospective and Retrospective U.S. Donor Surveillance Studies, Michael Busch, M.D., Ph.D., Blood Systems Research Institute
    7. Assay Development Efforts on MLV-related Human Retroviruses, Rachel Bagni, Ph.D., National Cancer Institute

    3:30 p.m. Break
    3:45 p.m. Open Public Hearing
    4:30 p.m.

    Open Committee Discussion
    Questions for the Committee
    5:30 p.m. Adjournment

    Wednesday, December 15, 2010
    8:00 a.m.

    Opening Remarks, Blaine Hollinger, M.D., Chair

    Statement of Conflicts of Interest, Announcements
    8:10 a.m.

    Committee Updates

    - Update from the HHS Advisory Committee Blood Safety and Availability and Summary of November 4-5, 2010 Meeting, Jerry Holmberg, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability (15)

    - Summary of December 9-10, 2010 Workshop Product Development Program for Interventions in Patients with Severe Bleeding Due to Trauma or Other Causes, Jaro Vostal, M.D., Ph.D., DH, OBRR, FDA (15)
    9:00 a.m. Break
    9:15 a.m.

    Topic III: Review of the Research Programs in the Laboratories of Hemostasis and Plasma Derivatives, Division of Hematology, OBRR

    1. Overview of CBER Research, Carolyn Wilson, Ph.D., CBER, FDA (15)
    2. Overview of OBRR Research, C.D. Atreya, Ph.D., OBRR, FDA (15)
    3. Overview of the Division of Hematology Research Program, Basil Golding, M.D., DH, OBRR, FDA (15)
    4. Overview of the Laboratory of Hemostasis, Timothy Lee, Ph.D., DH, OBRR, FDA (30)
    Questions & Answers (15)
    5. Overview of the Laboratory of Plasma Derivatives, Dorothy Scott, M.D., DH, OBRR (30')
    Questions and Answers (15')

    11:30 a.m. Open Public Hearing
    12:00 p.m. Closed Committee Discussion
    12:45 p.m. Adjournment
  2. Otis

    Otis Señor Mumbler

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    December 14-15, 2010: Blood Products Advisory Committee Meeting Issue Summary

    December 14-15, 2010: Blood Products Advisory Committee Meeting Issue Summary

    99th Meeting, December 14-15, 2010
    Hilton Washington D.C./North
    620 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD

    Topic: Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) related human retroviruses and blood safety


    Issue: FDA is seeking the advice of the Blood Products Advisory Committee (BPAC) on the deferral of donors based on a diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or Prostate Cancer (PC) and testing for the newly identified MLV-related human retroviruses (that include XMRV) associated with CFS and PC that may pose a concern for blood safety.

    1. Background[/B
    Murine Leukemia Viruses (MLVs) are gamma retroviruses belonging to the Retroviridae family. Gamma retroviruses are widespread in vertebrates and in animals they cause a wide range of diseases including cancers, immunodeficiency, and neurological disorders. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), the first gamma retrovirus known to infect humans, was originally identified in 2006 in prostatic tissue from patients with familial prostate cancer [1].

    XMRV is a simple xenotropic MLV-related human retrovirus whose genome encodes gag, pro, pol, and env genes [2].

    XMRV is unrelated to HIV and unlike Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Human T-lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), accessory or regulatory genes have not been identified to date[1].

    XMRV is highly similar to mouse retroviruses, in particular Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMLV)[1, 3].

    Virions have a complex structure and consist of an envelope, a nucleocapsid, and a nucleoid. Virions are spherical to pleomorphic measuring 90-100 nm in diameter[4] or 137 nm[3].

    The viral genome is a dimer of linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with approximately 8100 nucleotides [1, 4].

    Although early sequence data indicated that the genetic sequence of XMRV is highly conserved, recent studies have reported genetic variation in XMRV sequences[5].

    Sequences of a new polytropic MLV-related virus which are clearly different from the XMRV strains previously reported were found in CFS samples[6], suggesting that there may be several MLV-related viruses in addition to XMRV. Therefore, the term MLV-related human retroviruses is used to include both xenotropic and polytropic viruses

    2. MLV-related viruses: Epidemiology and Disease Association
    1. Prostate Cancer
    Since the discovery of MLV-related human retroviruses, there have been several reports about their association with Prostate Cancer (PC) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and other reports of a lack of association with these diseases. Using the viral sequence based array, XMRV sequences were identified in samples from 7/11 prostate cancer patients that were homozygous (QQ) for the R462 mutation for RNAse L which is an important molecule in the innate antiviral response [7].

    A survey of an additional 86 PC tumors by RT-PCR specific for XMRV showed that 40% of QQ cases were positive for XMRV compared with 1.5% of heterozygous RQ and homozygous wild type RR cases. Subsequently an analysis of 334 consecutive prostate resection specimens using a quantitative PCR assay and immunohistochemistry showed that 6% were positive for XMRV DNA and 23% for protein expression. Taken together, these findings suggested an association of XMRV with prostate cancer [3].

    However, there are also studies which either did not find or found in low frequency MLV-related human retrovirus sequences in PC patients. Studies of an Irish PC cohort of 139 patients with the R462Q mutation showed no evidence of XMRV [8]. In a German study, only 1/105 tissue samples were positive for XMRV DNA from non-familial PC while 1/70 samples were positive from men who did not have PC [9]. In a different study of German PC patients, 589 PC tissues with the RNaseL R462Q mutation were tested using nested RT-PCR and all were found to be negative [10]. In a recent Dutch study, XMRV was found in 3 out of 74 (4%) prostate cancer patients[11].

    At the 1st International Workshop on XMRV held in September, 2010, several new findings were reported on the association of MLV-related human retroviruses with PC and they are presented below.

    A study of 3 separate PC tissues from 3 separate PC patients showed that all specimens contained integrated proviral sequences of MLV/XMRV [12].

    A second study evaluated PC in 355 tissues, 40 PBMC from PC patients and 70 healthy controls in Northern Europe. Of the 355 PC tissues tested, 2 were positive for XMRV, one belonging to wild type and the other, heterozygous for R462Q[13].

    PBMC from the two positive patients were found to be negative for XMRV sequences by PCR. In a separate study, prostatic tissue from 144 PC patients from the southern US were tested by nested env PCR on proviral DNA and for 55 of these patients, both tumor and normal prostate tissue specimens were available for testing. The findings were that 32/144 (22%) were positive for XMRV which was also detected in normal tissue. Positive findings were independent of R462Q in this patient population[14].

    Finally, in a study of 161 PC patients, 452 prostate tissues with benign pathologies and 596 prostate tumor tissue specimens were tested and no XMRV was detected in any of the samples [15].

    2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    MLV-related human retroviruses have also been reported by a few laboratories in the blood of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), a disease of unknown etiology, known to affect several million people worldwide [4].

    Other laboratories have failed to detect XMRV in blood samples from CFS patients. CFS is a clinically defined condition characterized by severe, debilitating fatigue and a combination of symptoms that prominently features self-reported impairments in concentration and short-term memory, sleep disturbances and muscle and joint pain and symptoms similar to those of infectious diseases [16].

    A number of viruses, including human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), various enteroviruses, and the human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), have been cited as possible triggers of CFS; but, so far, no causative infectious agent has been conclusively identified [17]. Clinical diagnosis of CFS is largely a diagnosis of exclusion of other diseases.

    In a study reported in 2009 [4], DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of CFS patients and healthy controls from the US were tested for the presence of XMRV sequences. XMRV sequences were found in 68 out of 101 CFS patients (67%), as compared to 8 of 218 (3.7%) healthy US controls. Viral gene sequences identified in CFS patients clustered with sequences from PC, and both sequences were virtually identical. Further investigation using activated CFS patient PBMC co-cultured with susceptible PC cells (LNCaP) showed that virus could be transmitted by cells and supernatant, as indicated by protein expression and transmission electron microscopy, suggesting that the virus being detected by protein expression was infectious. Virus could also be transmitted in LNCaP cells from 10/12 CFS patient plasma samples. These studies suggested that both cell associated and cell-free transmission of XMRV is possible. Finally, antibodies to XMRV were detected in 9/18 CFS patients using a test based on the envelope of a closely related virus, spleen focus forming virus (SFFV).

    In August 2010, a second study provided further evidence for the presence of MLV-related human retroviral sequences in PBMC of CFS patients[6]. The study involved testing 41 PBMC samples from 37 CFS patients using gag primers; 32/37 (86.5%) patients were found to be positive for polytropic MLV-related viral sequences. The corresponding plasma samples from CFS patients showed evidence for MLV-related virus gag gene sequences in 42% when tested by RT-PCR. PBMC from 7/8 patients for whom a follow up sample obtained 15 years later showed presence of MLV related human retrovirus sequences by PCR[6]. Furthermore, MLV related sequences were also detected in PBMC of 3/44 (6.8%) of healthy blood donors. In contrast to the previously reported findings of close genetic relatedness of all XMRVs in patients with CFS and in PC from different geographic regions the amplified gag gene sequences revealed a genetically diverse group of MLV-related viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of 21 CFS patient sequences revealed 3 different MLV-related retroviral gag gene sequences and a fourth variant was identified in 1/3 blood donor samples all of them forming a cluster distinct from XMRV. The viral gag gene sequences were phylogenetically more closely related to polytropic or modified polytropic endogenous retroviruses. There was no evidence of mouse DNA contamination based on a mitochondrial DNA assay. These findings suggest the presence of a heterogeneous group of MLV-related human retroviruses in the blood of CFS patients and to a lesser extent in healthy blood donors. The sequences detected were polytropic MLV rather than XMRV.

    At the 1st International Workshop on XMRV held in September, 2010 several conflicting findings were reported on detection of MLV related viruses in the blood of CFS patients.


    In one study, PBMCs from 184 CFS and 25 controls were tested using Taqman PCR and nested PCR assays for XMRV gag, and conventional PCR for mouse DNA. Positive results were obtained using 1 of 2 nested gag PCR assays and sequences were identical to those observed in PC and CFS and closely related to endogenous MLVs. However, all samples that were positive for XMRV were also positive for mouse DNA indicating the need to test for mouse DNA sequences to control for contamination[18].

    In a second study, PBMCs and plasma from 30 adults including 10 severe, 10 recovered and 10 healthy controls were tested using PCR for the gag gene and culture of virus from plasma using the LNCaP cells permissive for XMRV replication. MLV related sequences were detected in 8 severe and 3 recovered cases and 1 healthy control. In addition virus could be cultured from 6 specimens of which 5 were from CFS cases and 1 from the control. The sequences identified in this study were all polytropic MLV/XMRV[19].

    In a third study of UK patients, plasma from 50 CFS patients were tested in a US laboratory by virus culture and PBMC DNA by nested PCR using primers from the gag and env region. Other methods used included Western blot, immuno-histochemistry and serology. Sixty percent of cases were positive by culture using co-cultivation with LNCaP cells. Furthermore, env sequences were detected in PBMC of 7 CFS patients before co-culture. Sequence analysis showed that they were identical to XMRV sequences previously reported. Plasma was positive for antibodies in all cases where virus was isolated[20].

    Despite these positive findings of MLV related human retroviruses in CFS patients, several other studies have reported negative findings in patients from the Netherlands[20], UK[22, 23] and China[24]. Furthermore, studies conducted in a US population of CFS cases and healthy blood donors showed no evidence of MLV related viruses in PBMC and plasma[25, 26]. Studies by other groups presented at the 1st International XMRV Workshop showed negative findings of MLV related viruses in CFS patients and healthy controls. A German study reported absence of XMRV antibodies in 36 CFS patients and 17 healthy controls using gag and env based ELISA. In addition, 50 sera from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were tested for serological evidence of XMRV infection and found to be negative. Furthermore, nested PCR on DNA from stimulated PBMC of 39 CFS and 50 MS patients, and 30 healthy controls gave negative results. Consistent with the PCR results, no reverse transcriptase activity was detectable in supernatants of cultured PBMC 7 days post-infection and no infectious virus could be detected by co-culture with susceptible LNCaP cells [27]. Finally, in a study of PBMC and plasma samples from 50 patients with myalgic encephalitis, 400 PC patients and 200 blood donors in Sweden by PCR, co-culture and serology methods, none were found to be positive for MLV related human retroviral sequences[28].


    The reasons for the discrepancies between findings of various epidemiologic studies of MLV related human retroviruses are not clear at the present time. Differences in cohorts, populations, sample preparation, and test methods have been considered as potential causes [29].

    In addition, differences in geographic prevalence, genetic variation of the virus or other factors could also potentially contribute to these findings [2]. Additional studies are needed to confirm the presence of MLV-related human retroviruses in CFS and to fully understand the possible role of these retroviruses in disease causation. Finally, although XMRV and MLV sequences have been identified in CFS and prostate cancer patients in some studies, a causal relationship with disease has not yet been established.

    3. Other Epidemiologic Findings
    Among other epidemiologic findings are those recently reported by investigators in Germany that MLV related human retroviruses could be detected in respiratory secretions [30]. In this study, 267 respiratory samples from patients with various respiratory conditions and related illnesses were screened for XMRV infection using PCR methods. The prevalence of XMRV infection was found to be 2.3% (3/75) in travelers from Asia who had respiratory tract infections; 3.2% (1/31) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; 9.9% (16/161) in immunosuppressed patients with severe respiratory tract infections; 3.2% (2/62) in the healthy control group. It is not clear whether finding XMRV in the respiratory tract indicates that the virus can be transmitted by the respiratory route. In general, retroviruses are rarely transmitted through respiratory secretions.


    3. Discussion
    1. Evaluation of Transfusion Risk

    Transmission through blood transfusion of XMRV has not been shown, but is theoretically possible since XMRV virus has been detected in blood cells and there is evidence of cell-free virus. Recent studies using activated patient PBMC co-cultured with susceptible PC cells (LNCaP) showed that virus could be transmitted by both cells and tissue culture supernatant, suggesting that the virus was infectious [4].

    Virus could also be cultured and isolated from CFS patient plasma, suggesting that both cell-associated and cell-free transmission of MLV-related human retroviruses is possible [4].

    A preliminary animal study of XMRV performed in rhesus macaques showed disseminated infection with low but detectable transient viremia between 4-14 days. Seroconversion occurred at 11-14 days following inoculation, with titers peaking around day 95. Virus could be isolated from T- and B- lymphocytes and NK cells in blood (but not macrophages), prostate epithelial cells, vaginal tissue, and there was evidence for viral replication in spleen, lung, lymph nodes and liver[31].

    A seroprevalence study in Japan found 1.7% of random donors to be positive [32]. Preliminary studies have shown that 3/2851 US blood donors (0.1%) were anti-XMRV antibody positive using a research immunoassay based on gag and env proteins[31]. Additional prospective and retrospective studies to evaluate prevalence of MLV related human retroviruses in blood donors are ongoing and results will be discussed at the BPAC meeting.

    2. Donor Deferral for risk of MLV-related infection in patients with a diagnosis of CFS and PC
    Although as yet there is no demonstration of MLV-related sequence transmission through transfusion, as a precautionary measure, blood establishments in different countries are deferring individuals with diagnosed CFS. Since November 2009 the United Kingdom Blood Services has deferred individuals suffering from CFS from blood donation until the condition is resolved and they are feeling completely well. On April 23, 2010, Australia's Red Cross Blood Service recommended that donors who have been diagnosed with CFS will be indefinitely deferred and the decision reviewed in two years time to allow for further studies of XMRV. Since April, 2010, Canadian Blood Services has indefinitely deferred donors with a medical history of CFS. The New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) is adopting a similar approach to that developed by the Canadian Blood Services in deferring donors with a history of CFS, also known as myalgic encephalitis (ME). In New Zealand, the present exclusion as blood donors of people still suffering CFS or who had been diagnosed in the past two years would be extended to also exclude donors who report ever having been diagnosed with CFS. The deferral policies in all of these countries involve donors volunteering CFS information; there is no specific donor question on the screening questionnaire.

    In the US, in June 2010, AABB (formerly known as the American Association of Blood Banks) published an Association Bulletin (10-03) which recommends as an interim measure that “blood collecting organizations make educational information available regarding the reasons why an individual diagnosed with CFS should not donate blood or blood components.” [33].

    The AABB also developed donor education materials suitable for discouraging such donations. The AABB does not recommend adding a specific question to the donor history questionnaire. The Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS) Association of America has a long-standing recommendation that individuals with CFS voluntarily not donate blood or organs based on both donor and recipient safety concerns which include low blood volume and infections common in CFS [34]. In May 2010, the HHS Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee (CFSAC) recommended to the Assistant Secretary for Health that blood collection facilities indefinitely defer donors with a history of CFS, or with active CFS, through a donor screening question specifically for CFS.

    Currently, FDA does not have a policy for deferring donors based on a history of cancer and there is no scientific evidence that cancer can be transmitted through blood transfusions [35].

    In regard to PC, results of a large survey conducted in Sweden and Denmark (SCANDAT) of 888,843 blood transfusion recipients without a prior cancer diagnosis at the index transfusion showed no increase in prostate cancer [36].

    Furthermore, statistically significant decreased risk was observed in anatomic site-specific analysis for prostate cancer 2-4 years after transfusion. For these reasons, donor deferral on the basis of a history of PC has not been recommended in the US or other countries except in Canada, where since 2003, a policy of permanent deferral for prostate cancer patients has been implemented and prior donations are retrieved and destroyed.

    3. Detection methods

    Currently there are no commercially approved/licensed tests for donor screening or for the detection of infection with MLV related human retroviruses. Research assays to detect XMRV include PCR, EIA, Western blot, immuno-histochemistry and virus culture. Purified recombinant antigens have been used to develop serology assays and preliminary data indicate that the gp70 antigen provided higher sensitivity than p15E or p30. Additionally, a virus infectivity assay based on green fluorescent protein detection in an indicator cell line has been developed to enable early and sensitive virus detection in samples, and determine infectivity and inactivation of virus. The relative sensitivity and specificity of various assays have not been determined and standards for their performance have not yet been established.


    A Scientific Working Group, led by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), was established to design and coordinate research studies to evaluate whether XMRV poses a threat to blood safety. As a first step towards this goal, an analytical reference panel was developed to validate the analytical sensitivity of assays used by different laboratories. Three additional phases are in progress or being planned to evaluate sample processing questions, clinical sensitivity and specificity, and obtain a preliminary estimate of the prevalence of XMRV in blood donors. The study is being sponsored by the NHLBI through the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) program with coordination by Blood Systems Research Institute, the REDS-II central laboratory. A coded analytical reference panel of plasma specimens containing varying concentrations of a reference culture supernatant from the chronically infected prostate cancer cell line 22Rv1 was tested in six participating laboratories to compare the analytical sensitivity of their respective assays for XMRV.

    Similarly, reference infected cell preparations were established by spiking known numbers of infected cells into whole blood and panels created for detection of XMRV DNA in these specimens. The study participants in this first phase included laboratories from the NCI, FDA (two laboratories), CDC and the Whittemore Peterson Institute. All assays detected at least 136 copies/ml of XMRV DNA in whole blood. Four out of five plasma RNA assays performed similarly, with limits of detection of at least 80 RNA copies/ml.

    Phase II which is being conducted to evaluate sample processing effects is currently underway.
    An appendix of studies that have published or reported thus far on the association of MLV/XMRV in prostate cancer, CFS and in the healthy population is attached for reference.

    Summary

    The science of MLV related viruses in humans is still evolving. While many laboratories have detected MLV-related sequences in prostate cancer samples, others have not. The frequency of positive samples varies widely between laboratories. There is controversy about the detection of MLV-related sequences in CFS with the majority of laboratories failing to detect MLV sequences. There are ongoing studies to determine whether technical issues, such as extraction methods or primers and/or subject selection including clinical criteria and geographic issues might influence the detection of MLV sequences. Potential transmission through blood has not been demonstrated. There is no known causative relationship between MLV infection in humans and disease.

    The BPAC session will include several presentations on MLV-related human retroviruses.

    The committee will hear presentations on the background of the issues to be discussed, an update of current research on epidemiology, disease association, animal transmission studies, ongoing validation studies of assays and panels for MLV related human retroviruses, and other relevant studies on the association of MLV-related viruses with CFS, prostate cancer and blood donors.

    Based on the current scientific knowledge of MLV-related viruses in humans and their reported disease association, FDA is seeking recommendations from the BPAC on
    1) indefinite deferral for blood and plasma donors with a diagnosis of CFS or PC, and
    2) donor screening for MLV-related virus in absence of confirmed disease causation. FDA is also seeking the advice of the BPAC on the potential suitability of NAT and/or serology testing of blood donations as safeguards against transmission of MLV related viruses by blood transfusion.

    Questions for the Committee

    1. Do the scientific data support asking donors about a medical history and/or diagnosis of CFS as a basis for indefinite deferral?

    2. Please discuss whether the scientific data support asking donors about a medical history and/or diagnosis of prostate cancer as a basis for indefinite deferral.

    3. Please comment on the scientific evidence that would be needed to justify a policy of donor testing for infection with MLV-related human retroviruses. In particular, should donor testing be considered in the absence of confirmed disease causation?

    4. Assuming that testing is warranted, please comment on the potential utility of NAT and/or serologic testing of blood donations to ensure safety of the blood supply from transmission of MLV-related human retroviruses.

    References

    1. Urisman A, Molinaro RJ, Fischer N, Plummer SJ, Casey G, Klein EA, Malathi K, Magi-Galluzzi C, Tubbs RR, Ganem D, et al: Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant. PLoS Pathog 2006, 2:e25.
    2. Coffin JM, Stoye JP: A New Virus for Old Diseases? Science 2009.
    3. Schlaberg R, Choe DJ, Brown KR, Thaker HM, Singh IR: XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009, 106:16351-16356.
    4. Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Das Gupta J, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, et al: Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science 2009, 326:585-589.
    5. Jones KS, Huang YK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Pfost MA, Mikovits JA, Bagni RK, Esposito D, Ruscetti FW: Evidence for sequeence variation in XMRV. 2010 Meeting on Retroviruses, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 2010:Abstract 13.
    6. Lo SC, Pripuzova N, Li B, Komaroff AL, Hung GC, Wang R, Alter HJ: Detection of MLV-related virus gene sequences in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy blood donors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107:15874-15879.
    7. Dong B, Kim S, Hong S, Das Gupta J, Malathi K, Klein EA, Ganem D, Derisi JL, Chow SA, Silverman RH: An infectious retrovirus susceptible to an IFN antiviral pathway from human prostate tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007, 104:1655-1660.
    8. D'Arcy F, Foley R, Perry A, Marignol L, Lawler M, Gaffney E, Watson R, Fitzpatrick J, Lynch T: No evidence of XMRV in Irish prostate cancer patients with the R462Q mutation. European Urology supplements 2008, 7.
    9. Fischer N, Hellwinkel O, Schulz C, Chun FK, Huland H, Aepfelbacher M, Schlomm T: Prevalence of human gammaretrovirus XMRV in sporadic prostate cancer. J Clin Virol 2008, 43:277-283.
    10. Hohn O, Krause H, Barbarotto P, Niederstadt L, Beimforde N, Denner J, Miller K, Kurth R, Bannert N: Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus(XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients. Retrovirology 2009, 6:92.
    11. Verhaegh GW, de Jong AS, Smit FP, Jannink SA, Melchers WJ, Schalken JA: Prevalence of human xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) in dutch prostate cancer patients. Prostate 2010:in press.
    12. Petros JA, Arnold RS, Plattner C, Yue L, Makarova NV, Blackwell JL, Hunter E: Variant XMRVs in clinical prostate cancer. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_06.
    13. Fischer N, Stieler K, Schlomm T, Minner S, Hohn O, Huland H, Sauter G, Simon R, Schmidt C, Horst A: XMRV prevalence in prostate cancer tissues and the role of the prostate compartment in XMRV infection. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_08.
    14. Danielson BP, Ayala GE, Kimata JT: XMRV infection of prostate cancer patients from the Southern United States and analysis of possible correlates of infection. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_09.
    15. Sfanos, KS, Aloia, AL, Hicks, JL, Isaacs, WB, Zheng, Q, AM Demarzo, Rein, A. Failure to detect XMRV in prostate cancer and benign prostatic tissues. Ist International Workshop on XMRV 2010; Abstract O_07
    16. Fukuda K, Straus SE, Hickie I, Sharpe MC, Dobbins JG, Komaroff A: The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1994, 121:953-959.
    17. Prins JB, van der Meer JW, Bleijenberg G: Chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 2006, 367:346-355.
    18. Huber BT, Oakes B, Tai AK, Cingoz O, Henefield MH, Levine S, Coffin JM: Prevalence of XMRV in CFS patients and healthy controls. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstratc O_10.
    19. Hanson MR, Lee LL, Lin L, Bell DE, Ruppert D, Bell DS: XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot study. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_11.
    20. Mikovits JA, Bagni RK, Jones KS, Huang Y, Bertolette D, Sadowski C, Lombardi VC, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Ruscetti FW: Detection of infectious XMRV in the peripheral blood of chroninc gatigue syndrome patients in the United Kingdom. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_13.
    21. van Kuppeveld FJ, Jong AS, Lanke KH, Verhaegh GW, Melchers WJ, Swanink CM, Bleijenberg G, Netea MG, Galama JM, van der Meer JW: Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort. BMJ, 340:c1018.
    22. Erlwein O, Kaye S, McClure MO, Weber J, Wills G, Collier D, Wessely S, Cleare A: Failure to detect the novel retrovirus XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome. PLoS One, 5:e8519.
    23. Groom HCT, Boucherit VC, Makinson K, Randal E, Baptista S, Hagan S, Gow JW, Mattes FM, Breuer J, Kerr JR, et al: Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Retrovirology, 7:10.
    24. Hong P, Li J, Li Y: Failure to detect xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in Chinese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Virol J, 7:224.
    25. Switzer WM, Jia H, Hohn O, Zheng H, Tang S, Shankar A, Bannert N, Simmons G, Hendry RM, Falkenberg VR, et al: Absence of evidence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infection in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls in the United States. Retrovirology, 7:57.
    26. Henrich TJ, Li JZ, Felsenstein D, Kotton CN, Plenge RM, Pereyra F, Marty FM, Lin NH, Grazioso P, Croshiere DM, et al: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus prevalence in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or chronic immunomodulatory conditions. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010, 202:in press.
    27. Hohn O, Strohschein K, Brandt A, Paul F, Scheibenbogen C, Bannert N: No evidence for XMRV in CFS and MS patients in Germany despite the ability of the virus to infect human blood cells in vitro. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_18.
    28. Blomberg J, Elfaitouri A, Shao X, Elgh F, Hessel S, Gottfries CG, Ripkorn R: Search for XMRV in Swedish patients with myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and prostate cancer: methods and results. 1st International Workshop on XMRV 2010:Abstract O_19.
    29. McClure M, Wessely S: Chronic fatigue syndrome and human retrovirus XMRV. BMJ, 340:c1099.
    30. Fischer N, Schulz C, Stieler K, Hohn O, Lange C, Drosten C, Aepfelbacher M: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus in respiratory tract. Emerg Infect Dis, 16:1000-1002.
    31. Qiu X, Swanson P, Luk KC, Tu B, Villinger F, Das Gupta J, Silverman RH, Klein EA, Devare S, Schochetman G, Hackett J, Jr.: Characterization of antibodies elicited by XMRV infection and development of immunoassays useful for epidemiologic studies. Retrovirology, 7:68.
    32. Furuta RA: The prevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in healthy blood donors in Japan. In Retroviruses. pp. 100. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory; 2009:100.
    33. Association Bulletin #10-03. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Blood Donation Guidance for Persons With CFS for Safe Blood Donation. <http://wwwcfidsorg/bloodasp> 2010.
    34. Guidance for Persons With CFS for Safe Blood Donation <http://wwwcfidsorg/bloodasp>.
    35. Yang, H., Lee, J., Seed, C.R. Keller, A. Can Blood Transfusion Transmit Cancer ? A Literature Review. Transfusion Medicine Reviews 2010, Vol. 24, No. 3. 235-243.
    36. Hjalgrim H, Edgren G, Rostgaard K, Reilly M, Tran TN, Titlestad KE, Shanwell A, Jersild C, Adami J, Wikman A, et al: Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007, 99:1864-1874.
  3. Otis

    Otis Señor Mumbler

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    USA
    BPAC Members & Speaker

    December 14-15, 2010: Blood Products Advisory Committee Meeting Roster

    Full Contact Info for all Members and Speakers at the above link.

    Note the Temporary Voting Members (including Coffin, Klimas) and Speakers (including Hansen and Mikovits)

    MEMBERS

    CHAIRMAN
    Hollinger, F. Blaine, M.D.
    Bower, William, M.D., FIDSA
    Demetriades, Demetrios., M.D., Ph.D., FACS
    Key, Nigel S., M.B., Ch.B., FRCP
    Rentas, Francisco J., Ph.D. 9/30/11
    Troxel, Andrea B., Sc.D. 9/30/11
    Trunkey, Donald D., M.D. 9/30/11

    ACTING CONSUMER REPRESENTATIVE
    Baker, Judith, MHSA

    NON-VOTING INDUSTRY REP
    Bianco, Celso, M.D.

    PATIENT REPRESENTATIVE
    Aldrich, Dawn


    TEMPORARY VOTING MEMBERS (TVM)

    Coffin, John M., PhD
    Glynn, Simone A., M.D., MSc, M.P.H.
    Klimas, Nancy, M.D.
    Kramer, Laura D., PhD
    Luban, Naomi L., MD
    Nelson, Kenrad E., M.D.

    GUEST SPEAKERS
    Bagni, Rachel K., Ph.D. (Contractor)
    Busch, Michael P., M.D., Ph.D.
    Hanson, Maureen, Ph.D. (Hope to hear about her study)
    Holmberg, Jerry A., Ph.D.
    Margolis, Harold S., MD
    Mikovits, Judy A., Ph.D. (Yay)
    Monroe, Stephan S., PhD (boo)
    Petersen, Lyle R. M.D, M.P.H.
    Simmons, Graham, Ph.D.
    Stoye, Jonathan, PhD (boo with an accent.)
    Stramer, Susan L., Ph.D.
    Tomashek, Kay M., M.D., M.P.H.
    Villinger, Francois, DVM, PhD

    FDA ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL
    DESIGNATED FEDERAL OFFICER
    Emery, Bryan, LCDR
    Scharpf, Jennifer, M.P.H.

    COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST
    Muckelvene, Pearline K.
    Dawson, Rhonda
  4. urbantravels

    urbantravels disjecta membra

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    Perhaps an interesting birthday present for me (Dec 15 - Sagittarius all the way)...will this be the meeting at which they finally defer us from blood donation for good?
  5. Cort

    Cort Phoenix Rising Founder

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    Well done! I asked Dr. Mikovits about when Phase II will be over and she said they hoped to complete it by the meeting.
  6. Otis

    Otis Señor Mumbler

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    Good to know. We need a fly on the wall at the meeting.
  7. ggingues

    ggingues $10 gift code at iHerb GAS343 of $40

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  8. George

    George waitin' fer rabbits

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    Great post Otis!

    That's important news Cort, now I know when to start bugging people again! (grins)

    I sure hope we get some good Christmas surprises UrbanT, for your birthday may you be banned from donating blood, and for Christmas may you be poked, prodded and have your blood drawn and sent to many, many labs. (grins) I would consider either a really good Christmas present.
  9. Mark

    Mark Acting CEO

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    [​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]

    It must baffle outsiders, the things we people pray for! Our goal for the New Year: definitive confirmation and acknowledgement that we are infected with a retrovirus! What are nightmares for most people are beyond our wildest dreams! This community holds some of the weirdest and most wonderful parties I've ever attended...let's have another one before the year's out, eh?
  10. George

    George waitin' fer rabbits

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    oooohhhhh can I have an IV drip of Ampligen twice a week for the rest of my life. Please, please, please! (grins)

    ohhhh edit; I just thought if the Phase II is done by the meeting then does that mean the "Lipkin" study will be able to get started??? Does anybody know when they are going to round up the suspects and suck their blood for the study????
  11. Bob

    Bob

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    It's interesting that they are quoting the Japan study... I've never seen the Japanese study quoted by anyone related to any government departments before now.

    I think this is Silverman's and Abbott Diagnostics' study that they are quoting... Interesting that they are using such a low detection rate of XMRV as evidence of XMRV in the blood supply.
  12. Bob

    Bob

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    I haven't been following the prostate cancer studies closely, and looking at this list, I was actually very surprised at the number of positive studies that there have been for prostate cancer.

    I count a total of 11 positive studies, if the very low detection rates are included.

    And 5 studies detected XMRV in prostate cancer patients at between 22 to 40% (22%, 23%, 26%, 40% and 40%).

    These high-detection-rate positive studies seem consistent, and pretty significant.
  13. jspotila

    jspotila Senior Member

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    Does anyone know if this meeting will be webcast? I sent an email to the Office of Public Relations but have not yet received a reply. My recollection of the last meeting was that there is a fee to watch it live on the web. Anyone have additional information?
  14. Megan

    Megan Senior Member

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    Bob,

    The 'positive' prostate cancer positive studies marked in this document are a significant overestimate (and negatives are underestimated) as a number of studies are marked as 'positive' when they were indeed negative for any association between XMRV and prostate cancer. See my post about this on the other thread. http://www.forums.aboutmecfs.org/sh...XMRV-and-MLV-related-Virus-Infection-in-Human. One of their 'positive' PC studies even states in it's conclusion that there was no association with PC fouund - by any measure such studies should be counted as negative.

    As you have noted there are only five proste cancer studies that find any significant association, and only two of these had any controls. In the case of CFS studies, the document shows there are 6 positive XMRV studies, four of which we know have controls. Five of these six have found XMRV/MLV at much higher rate than in the prostate cancer studies. And thats excluding the upcoming Singh study which her patent document indicates is also positive. This would take the CFS positives to seven.

    The tally from the FDA document, using positive association with disease as the criteria, should read:

    Prostate cancer:
    5 positive studies
    8 negative studies

    CFS:
    6 positive studies (excluding the Singh study)
    8 negative studies

    Looking at the above figures, it seems extroadinary to me that anyone in the scientific community can be claiming that the link between prostate cancer and XMRV is stronger than the link between CFS and XMRV. Yet this apparently what is happening. Even the issues summary for the FDA meeting makes it sound like it is the case.

    We should be seeking answers as to why this misrepresentation is occurring, both in the FDA document and elsewhere in the scientific community.
  15. George

    George waitin' fer rabbits

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    I agree that there does seem to be a real disconnect with ME/CFS and this virus in the minds of many of the scientific and government community. Dispite the fact that prevelence in PC seems to be less than 50% more like 25% and the ME/CFS studies are looking at 70 to 90% average of 85%.

    Perhaps we need to highlight the predjuidice to the media and anyone else who will sit still long enough to listen. It's amazing that the ME/CFS community is being treated with the same disdane and hostility that might be used in 1950's towards communist and gays. (eye roll) That does seem to be what's happening. I mean come on this virus looks to cover the BIG 4.

    We got Balls, Boobies, Brains and Babies the 4 big B's.

    XMRV affects prostate with a higher incidence of cancer and a more aggressive form.
    XMRV affects breast cancer most likely in the same way.
    XMRV affects cognitive function to an early Alzheimer like state called Myalgic Encephalitis or CFS (grins).
    XMRV can be passed on to our babies and may result in Autism and other illnesses.

    So I don't get the prejudice here. Any researcher who want's to cut off research or only see a small part of this big picture is er, um, . . . well a dumb ass.
  16. Gemini

    Gemini Senior Member

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    jspotila,

    correct me if I'm wrong, there are errors/omissions in the "Issue Summary" posted for the December 14-15 Meeting, Post #2 this thread under section 2 "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome".

    is it possible for you or the BWG CAA representative to submit a rewrite of the second paragraph?CFS neurological symptoms are not "self-reported" but objective and immunological symptoms are omitted.

    suggested rewrite:
    "Other laboratories have failed to detect XMRV in blood samples from CFS patients, and as a result, NIAID has authorized a study, currently underway, to clarify the discrepant laboratory findings. CFS is a clinically defined condition affecting multiple organ systems in the body. It is characterized by severe, debilitating fatigue and a combination of symptoms that prominently feature objective immunological and neurological abnormalities such as chronic immune system activation and NK cell deficiency and impairments in information processing speed, memory, and concentration. In addition, post exertion relapse, sleep disturbances, muscle and joint pain and other symptoms similar to those of infectious diseases occur. [4, 6, 16]"
  17. jspotila

    jspotila Senior Member

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    My understanding is that the Issue Summary was written by the FDA and/or Blood Product Safety Advisory Committee, not the Blood Working Group or the AABB XMRV Task Force.
  18. Gemini

    Gemini Senior Member

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    It's great you've narrowed down the source.

    If CAA decides to request a correction,
    you might use the opportunity to educate
    by directing them to Dr. Komaroff's excellent
    ME/CFS scientific overview (CAA Webinar,
    September 2010).
  19. RivkaRivka

    RivkaRivka Senior Member

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  20. RivkaRivka

    RivkaRivka Senior Member

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    i called the bryan guy mentioned above, and they do not accept video testimonies.

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