Basically they say, that bacteria can be cause and consequence of inflammatory bowel diseases. We need more of these scientists and we need more studies to not only find the cause but also the treatment for IBD and other related diseases. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1931312812002272 "Together, these results suggest that the elevated enterobacteria observed in colitic T5KO mice are likely both a cause and a consequence of colitis and, moreover, that classic concepts of microbial causation of disease such as Koch’s postulates may not be sufficient to describe the role of the microbiota in disease. The observation that several polymorphisms in genes with innate immune function confer risk for IBD makes it tempting to speculate that the mechanistic paradigms underlying T5KO colitis may be similar to those underlying IBD. Accordingly, our results suggest that IBD might clinically manifest following a prolonged, ultimately unsuccessful, attempt by the mucosal immune system to maintain/contain a stable microbiota while avoiding the excessive immune responses that can be detrimental to the host. In this scenario, a more successful, albeit still suboptimal, consequence of altered intestinal/microbiota relationship would be the maintenance of “low-grade” inflammation that correlates with diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, whose effects generally do not manifest during one’s prime reproductive years." http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120802141529.htm ScienceDaily (Aug. 2, 2012) — Results from a study conducted at Georgia State University suggest that a "fight" between bacteria normally living in the intestines and the immune system, kicked off by another type of bacteria, may be linked to two types of chronic disease. The study suggests that the "fight" continues after the instigator bacteria have been cleared by the body, according to Andrew Gewirtz, professor of biology at the GSU Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection. That fight can result in metabolic syndrome, an important factor in obesity, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The results were published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe. "The implication at present is that it is very important to control the early environment," Gewirtz said. "We need to examine how this can be achieved -- perhaps via breastfeeding, a more diverse diet, probiotics are possibilities." The study's results are important as instances of chronic diseases like metabolic syndrome and IBD are increasing rapidly among humans, he explained. Metabolic syndrome involves risk factors, including obesity, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. According to the American Heart Association, about 35 percent of adults are affected by this syndrome. IBD, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, happens when the intestines become inflamed, leading to abdominal cramps and pain, diarrhea, weight loss and bleeding. More than 600,000 Americans annually have some kind of inflammatory bowel disease, according to the American Academy of Family Physicians. Bacteria normally live in the gut of humans, with the average human having about 4 pounds of bacteria living there. "It is increasingly apparent that bacteria are playing a role in healthy development, and need to be properly managed by the mucosal immune system to avoid inflammatory diseases" Gewirtz explained.