Cort - Are you aware of the tremendous potential upset regarding the underlying cause of multiple sclerosis? Researchers in Italy, with some recent support here in the US, believe that MS is triggered by the blood brain barrier being compromised, resulting in buildup of iron deposits on veins. That then triggers the inappropriate immune response which destroys the myelin sheath and damages the nerve. They believe that many or most MS patients have abnormalities in the major veins that drain the brain and spinal cord - internal jugulars and azygos. Hundreds of procedures (venoplasty - opening up the veins with a balloon and/or stent) have been done, with some dramatic results being reported. Stanford did thirty-something procedures, but have suspended them due to potential technical difficulties with the stents. One of the thoughts is that if blood can't leave the brain adequately, it is not entering the brain adequately, thus producing some level of something like hypoxia - thus, the fatigue, brain fog, etc. which are not tied to specific brain lesions. The condition absolutely exists where veins are malformed or blocked or collapsed, etc. The big questions are, of course, IF and HOW that condition might relate to MS. The condition is known as CCSVI - chronic cerebral-spinal insufficiency. Due to the substantial overlap in symptoms (many sources believe that the great majority of ms patients fit the criteria for cfs), the similarity of viruses being associated, and after reading the above discussion of possible microbleeds in cfs patients, I thought I would just throw it out there. There are some people with CCSVI who do not fit MS diagnostic criteria. I wonder if they're totally healthy, or have other problems not described in the studies so far.