This is such an interesting subject. Cardiac researchers basically given up on antioxidants in heart disease - a disease characterized by oxidative stress. Several large studies have found that using simple formulations of antioxidants are not helpful and may even worsen the heart disease. There's been some speculation that those findings were due to throwing relatively high levels of a few antioxidants into a very complex system. Nevertheless my understanding is that heart researchers are now focused on building up the cellular membranes through fatty acid supplementation rather then trying to protect them using antioxidants. Now this study with a more complex antioxidant regime found that they did inhibit the oxidative stresses occurring after exercise and may have even made things worse! (It's a bizarre world). It makes me wonder if you're just better off getting your antioxidants in your diet or through food supplements. Antioxidants Do Not Prevent Postexercise Peroxidation and May Delay Muscle Recovery. The key finding seems to be that creatine kinase - a marker of muscle damage - decreased more quickly in the group that was not taking antioxidants. Wikipedia: CONCLUSIONS:: AOX supplementation does not offer protection against exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation and may hinder the recovery of muscle damage.