Hi Dbkita, That is the easy question. All I have to do is put on reading glasses to see the answer. In the capsule are lots of tiny pieces of ground crystal. They dissolve instantly with warm moisture and sit next to tissue in a high concentration making for easy direct diffusion. They used to question if a molecule as large as B12 could be absorbed that way. However, human trials answered that one. At one point we had appeared to have perhaps some correlation between visible crystal pieces and absorption. The amount absorbed is proportionate to time in contact with tissue and minimization of saliva flow through the stuff.