Ambient air pollution and daily hospital admissions for mental disorders in Shanghai, China February 2018 Increased risk of admissions for mental disorders associated with PM10, SO2, and CO Associations of air pollutants were generally stronger in warm period. Abstract Few studies have investigated the associations between ambient air pollution and mental disorders (MDs), especially in developing countries. We conducted a time-series study to explore the associations between six criteria air pollutants and daily hospital admissions for MDs in Shanghai, China, from 2013 to 2015. The MDs data were derived from the Shanghai Health Insurance System. We used over-dispersed, generalized additive models to estimate the associations after controlling for time trend, weather conditions, day of the week, and holidays. In addition, we evaluated the effect of modification by age, sex, and season. A total of 39,143 cases of hospital admissions for MDs were identified during the study period. A 10-μg/m3 increase in 2-day, moving-average concentration of inhalable particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide was significantly associated with increments of 1.27% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28%, 2.26%], 6.88% (95% CI, 2.75%, 11.00%), and 0.16% (95% CI: 0.02%, 0.30%) in daily hospital admissions for MDs, respectively. We observed positive but insignificant associations of fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. The estimated association of SO2 was relatively robust to the adjustment of simultaneous exposure to other pollutants. We found generally stronger associations of air pollutants with MDs in warm seasons than in cool seasons. There were no significant differences in the associations between different sex and age groups. This study suggested that short-term exposure to air pollution, especially to sulfur dioxide, was associated with increased risk of hospital admissions for MDs in Shanghai, China.