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Air Pollution causes SNS activation, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

Discussion in 'Addressing Biotoxin, Chemical & Food Sensitivities' started by Emootje, Apr 24, 2013.

  1. Emootje

    Emootje Senior Member

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    The Netherlands
    Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease
    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on “Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease” concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) over a few hours to weeks can trigger cardiovascular disease–related mortality and nonfatal events; longer-term exposure (eg, a few years) increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality to an even greater extent than exposures over a few days and reduces life expectancy within more highly exposed segments of the population by several months to a few years; reductions in PM levels are associated with decreases in cardiovascular mortality within a time frame as short as a few years; and many credible pathological mechanisms have been elucidated that lend biological plausibility to these findings. It is the opinion of the writing group that the overall evidence is consistent with a causal relationship between PM2.5 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This body of evidence has grown and been strengthened substantially since the first American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM2.5 exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.


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    justy and sianrecovery like this.
  2. sianrecovery

    sianrecovery Senior Member

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    This is excellent - thank you for posting.
     
  3. Emootje

    Emootje Senior Member

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    The Netherlands
    TRPA1 and Sympathetic Activation Contribute to Increased Risk of Triggered Cardiac Arrhythmias in Hypertensive Rats Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    Background: Diesel exhaust (DE), which is emitted from on- and off-road sources, is a complex mixture of toxic gaseous and particulate components that leads to triggered adverse cardiovascular effects such as arrhythmias.
    Objective: We hypothesized that increased risk of triggered arrhythmias 1 day after DE exposure is mediated by airway sensory nerves bearing transient receptor potential (TRP) channels [e.g., transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1 (TRPA1)] that, when activated by noxious chemicals, can cause a centrally mediated autonomic imbalance and heightened risk of arrhythmia.
    Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats implanted with radiotelemeters were whole-body exposed to either 500 μg/m3 (high) or 150 μg/m3 (low) whole DE (wDE) or filtered DE (fDE), or to filtered air (controls), for 4 hr. Arrhythmogenesis was assessed 24 hr later by continuous intravenous infusion of aconitine, an arrhythmogenic drug, while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored.
    Results: Rats exposed to wDE or fDE had slightly higher HRs and increased low-frequency:high-frequency ratios (sympathetic modulation) than did controls; ECG showed prolonged ventricular depolarization and shortened repolarization periods. Rats exposed to wDE developed arrhythmia at lower doses of aconitine than did controls; the dose was even lower in rats exposed to fDE. Pretreatment of low wDE–exposed rats with a TRPA1 antagonist or sympathetic blockade prevented the heightened sensitivity to arrhythmia.
    Conclusions: These findings suggest that a single exposure to DE increases the sensitivity of the heart to triggered arrhythmias. The gaseous components appear to play an important role in the proarrhythmic response, which may be mediated by activation of TRPA1, and subsequent sympathetic modulation. As such, toxic inhalants may partly exhibit their toxicity by lowering the threshold for secondary triggers, complicating assessment of their risk.

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