This is the second study to show benefit of ADHD drugs in ME/CFS patients with concentration difficulties. The first one (done in 2006) examined methylphenidate (Ritalin). Note that these drugs also reduce fatigue and pain, but to a lesser degree. Fatigue/pain and cognitive problems may not precisely correlate in ME/CFS. See http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049518 Note that antiviral treatments such as Ampligen and Valcyte may also have more effect on cognitive problems than physical fatigue in this disease. Astonishingly, it has taken almost 30 years since ME/CFS was first described in the 1980s for studies of the older stimulants to appear. There still hasn't really been a study of the effects of caffeine even. Whereas, there were repeated and unsuccessful studies of antidepressants in the first two decades. It certainly would have been much more logical to first try an amphetamine-type drug or caffeine in patients who report tiredness and difficulty concentrating! Psychiatry Res. 2012 Oct 9. pii: S0165-1781(12)00503-3. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.007. [Epub ahead of print] Use of Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in treatment of executive functioning deficits and chronic fatigue syndrome: A double blind, placebo-controlled study. Young JL. Source Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA; William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA; Rochester Center for Behavioral Medicine, Rochester Hills, MI, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) for the treatment of executive functioning deficits in adults (ages 18-60) with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The study's primary outcome measure was the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A). Secondary outcome measures were standardized assessments of fatigue, pain and global functioning. Twenty-six adults who met criteria for CFS and had clinically significant executive functioning deficits were randomly assigned to a flexible morning dose (30, 50, 70mg/day) of either placebo or LDX for a six-week trial. The data were analyzed with standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. Participants in the LDX group showed significantly more positive change in BRIEF-A scores (M(change)=21.38, SD=15.85) than those in the placebo group (M(change)=3.36, SD=7.26), p=0.005, d=1.46. Participants in the active group also reported significantly less fatigue and generalized pain relative to the placebo group. Although future studies with LDX should examine whether these benefits generalize to larger, more diverse samples of patients, these results suggest that LDX could be a safe and efficacious treatment for the executive functioning deficits often associated with CFS. The possibility that dopaminergic medications could play an important role addressing the symptoms of CFS is also discussed.