Discussion in 'Mast Cell Disorders/Mastocytosis' started by osisposis, Sep 19, 2016.
1Department of Internal Medicine, Valle del Nalón Hospital, 33920 Langreo, Principado de Asturias, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin tissue sections were collected from a matched cohort of 63 fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients and 49 volunteers from the general population with both alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) normal and deficiency variants. These tissues were examined for the expression of the broad-spectrum inhibitor AAT, the serine proteinases elastase and tryptase, the proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and TNFα, the endothelium biomarker VEGF, and the inflammation/nociception-related receptor PAR(2). The most relevant finding of the study was a significantly increased number of mast cells (MCs) in the papillary dermis of all FMS patients (greater than or equal to five to 14 per microscopic high power field) compared to zero to one in controls (p < 0.001). MCs strongly stained with tryptase, AAT and PAR(2) antibodies, exhibited a spindle-like shape and were uniformly distributed around blood vessels and appendages. MCP-1 and VEGF expressed weak/moderate positivity in most samples, with a higher expression in controls than in FMS patients (p < 0.001 and 0.051, respectively). No differences in elastase and TNFα were found between both groups. Moreover, no histological differences were found between samples from AAT deficiency and normal AAT phenotypes. Our results indicate that FMS is a MC-associated condition. MCs are present in skin and mucosal surfaces throughout the human body, and are easily stimulated by a number of physical, psychological, and chemical triggers to degranulate, releasing several proinflammatory products which are able to generate nervous peripheral stimuli causing CNS hypersensitivity, local, and systemic symptoms. Our findings open new avenues of research on FMS mechanisms and will benefit the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutics.
Just breaking it up into readable chunks (insert eyes-that-don't track emoji here)
A large number of mast cell activation disorder patients carry a concurrent diagnosis of Dysautonomia too, many of which have some sort of GI dysfunction as well.
Stimulated Human Mast Cells Secrete Mitochondrial Components That Have Autocrine and Paracrine Inflammatory Actions
Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP).
Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s) is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt) mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified fromLAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse.
These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip) with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP.
Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation.
Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as “autopathogens” contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and may be used as targets for novel treatments.
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